Horseweed has become increasingly common and difficult to control in San Joaquin Valley vineyards, due in part, to the evolution of glyphosate resistance. The development of weed-suppressive vineyard designs in which the trellis design, spacing, and row orientation combine to cast dense shade on the weed canopy zone (WCZ) may reduce weed growth. The relevance of such a system to horseweed, which can grow to be as tall, or taller, than a typical grapevine trellis, is uncertain. Also unknown is whether a glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotype and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype would perform similarly under such conditions. Therefore, we compared the growth and development of two potted horseweed biotypes (GR and GS) in vinerows oriented east–west (EW) and north–south (NS). Rows oriented EW allowed less light penetration to the WCZ than NS rows throughout the study, and horseweed biotypes responded to low light levels by producing leaves with larger specific leaf area and leaf area ratios than those in the NS rows. Also, the leaf, stem, and root dry weight of the horseweed plants in the EW rows was reduced by 30% compared to the horseweed plants in NS rows. Leaf number was also reduced in the horseweed plants in the EW rows, but only for the GS biotype. Row orientation did not affect phenological development or the number of seeds produced by the GR or GS biotypes, but the GR biotype budded, flowered, and set seed approximately 1 wk earlier than the GS biotype. Thus, shade associated with the EW vinerows reduced horseweed growth, but not fecundity, and the GR biotype reached reproductive maturity earlier than the GS biotype.
Nomenclature: Horseweed, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. ERICA; grape, Vitis vinifera L.