A population of oriental mustard from Port Broughton in South Australia was reported as not being controlled by 2,4-D. Dose response experiments determined this population was resistant to both 2,4-D and MCPA, requiring greater than 20 times more herbicide for equivalent control compared to a known susceptible population (from Roseworthy, South Australia) and a population resistant only to the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides (from Tumby Bay, South Australia). The Port Broughton population was also found to be resistant to three chemical groups that inhibit AHAS; however, the level of resistance was lower than the known acetolactate synthase–resistant population from Tumby Bay. Herbicides from other modes of action were able to control the Port Broughton population. Assays of isolated AHAS from the Port Broughton population showed high levels of resistance to the sulfonylurea and sulfonamide herbicide groups, but not to the imidazolinone herbicides. A single nucleotide change in the AHAS gene that predicted a Pro to Ser substitution at position 197 in the protein was identified in the Port Broughton population. This population of oriental mustard has evolved multiple resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides (AHAS inhibitors) and auxinic herbicides, through a mutation in AHAS and a second nontarget-site mechanism. Whether the same mechanism provides resistance to both AHAS inhibitors and auxinic herbicides remains to be determined. Multiple resistance to auxinic herbicides and AHAS inhibitors in the Port Broughton population will make control of this population more difficult.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; MCPA; oriental mustard, Sisymbrium orientale Torn.