Inheritance of glyphosate resistance was investigated in hairy fleabane populations from California as part of providing the information needed to predict and manage resistance and to gain insight into resistance mechanism (or mechanisms) present in the populations. Three glyphosate-resistant individuals grown from seed collected from distinct sites near Fresno, CA, were crossed to individuals from the same susceptible population to create reciprocal F1 populations. A single individual from each of the F1 populations was used to create a backcross population with a susceptible maternal parent, and an F2 population. Based on dose response analyses, reciprocal F1 populations were not statistically different from each other, more similar to the resistant parent, and statistically different from the susceptible parent, consistent with nuclear control of the trait and dominance to incomplete dominance of resistance over susceptibility in all three crosses. Glyphosate resistance in two of the three crosses segregated in the backcross and the F2 populations as a single-locus trait. In the remaining cross, the resistant parent had approximately half the resistance level as the other two resistant parents, and the segregation of glyphosate resistance in backcross and F2 populations conformed to a two-locus model with resistance alleles acting additively and at least two copies of the allele required for expression of resistance. This two-locus model of the segregation of glyphosate resistance has not been reported previously. Variation in the pattern of inheritance and the level of resistance indicate that multiple resistance mechanisms may be present in hairy fleabane populations in California.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; hairy fleabane, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.