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1 January 2015 Smoke-Isolated Trimethylbutenolide Inhibits Seed Germination of Different Weed Species by Reducing Amylase Activity
Heino B. Papenfus, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Martin Pošta, Jeffrey F. Finnie, Johannes Van Staden
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Abstract

Weeds pose a great problem to farmers worldwide, and controlling weeds demands a high input cost for herbicides and labor. Because of current environmental regulations, a limited number of herbicides are commercially available (with limited modes of action) to control weeds. Smoke water and the biologically active compounds isolated from smoke affect seed germination in a significant way. Smoke water (SW) and karrikinolide (KAR1, the germination stimulant isolated from smoke) have been tested extensively for their ability to promote seed germination in a vast array of plant species. In addition to KAR1, a germination inhibitor, trimethylbutenolide (TMB), was also isolated from plant-derived smoke. The effects of SW, KAR1, and TMB were tested on five major weed species of South Africa: fleabane, hairy wild lettuce, bugweed, spilanthes, and fameflower. Seeds of these weed species were subjected to 16/8 h light/dark conditions or to constant dark conditions at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 C and alternating 30/20 C. SW and KAR1 significantly increased germination, whereas TMB significantly inhibited germination of these weed species. Furthermore, TMB treatment reduced the amylase activity of the tested weed seeds compared with the water control. These results indicate the possibility of manipulating germination of certain weed seeds by SW, KAR1, and TMB. Thus, smoke and smoke-isolated compounds could potentially be used in new weed management strategies.

Nomenclature: Karrikinolide, KAR1, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3c]pyran-2-one; trimethylbutenolide, TMB, 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one; bugweed, Solanum mauritianum Scop.; fameflower, Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.; fleabane, Conyza albida Willd. ex Sprengel; hairy cat's ear, Hypochaeris radicata L.; spilanthes, Spilanthes decumbens (Sm.) A.H. Moore.

Weed Science Society of America
Heino B. Papenfus, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Martin Pošta, Jeffrey F. Finnie, and Johannes Van Staden "Smoke-Isolated Trimethylbutenolide Inhibits Seed Germination of Different Weed Species by Reducing Amylase Activity," Weed Science 63(1), 312-320, (1 January 2015). https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-14-00068.1
Received: 6 May 2014; Accepted: 1 August 2014; Published: 1 January 2015
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
germination inhibition
jewels of Opar
smoke water
weed-free periods
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