Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the influence of spray-solution pH, adjuvant, light intensity, temperature, and glyphosate on the efficacy of saflufenacil on horseweed. Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed from saflufenacil alone was greatest with a spray-solution pH of 5, compared with pH 7 or 9. However, when glyphosate was added to saflufenacil, similar GR50 values were measured with spray solutions adjusted to pH 5 and 9, and horseweed control at pH 9 was 38% greater than at pH 7. The efficacy of saflufenacil on horseweed was 36% greater when crop oil concentrate was used as an adjuvant compared with nonionic surfactant, regardless of the addition of glyphosate or the sensitivity of the horseweed population to glyphosate (resistant vs. susceptible). The addition of glyphosate to low rates of saflufenacil increased control over saflufenacil applied alone on glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant horseweed. Saflufenacil activity was greater under low light intensity (300 μmol m−2 s−1) than high light intensity (1,000 μmol m−2 s−1). Although initial horseweed control was greater under high temperature (27 C) compared with low temperature (10 C), by 21 d after treatment horseweed dry weight was similar from saflufenacil applied under high and low temperatures.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate, saflufenacil, horseweed, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.