Triquetrous murdannia is an annual weed commonly found in rice fields in China. Laboratory and screenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of light, temperature, osmotic and salt stress, seed burial depth, amount of rice residue, and depth of flooding on seed germination and seedling emergence of triquetrous murdannia and to evaluate the response of this weed to commonly available POST herbicides in China. Germination was greater than 93% under a wide day/night temperature range of 20/10 to 30/20 C in the light/dark regime. The time to onset of germination decreased as temperature increased. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light/dark conditions compared with seeds placed in the dark. The osmotic potential and NaCl concentration required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.5 MPa and 122 mM, respectively. The highest germination (68%) was observed from seeds sown on the soil surface, but decreased with increasing burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged from a depth of 4 cm, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried deeper than 6 cm. Seedling emergence decreased from 93 to 35% with increasing quantity of rice residue (1 to 6 103 kg ha-1) applied on the soil surface. Seedling emergence was reduced by 40, 48, 64, and 70% at flooding depths of 1, 2, 4, and 6 cm, respectively, for the seeds sown on the soil surface. Fluroxypyr and MCPA herbicides provided 100% control of triquetrous murdannia at the 2- to 6-leaf stages; however, to achieve 100% control with bispyribac-sodium, MCPA bentazone or MCPA fluroxypyr, herbicides had to be applied by the 4-leaf stage. The results of this study could help in developing more sustainable and effective integrated weed management strategies for the control of triquetrous murdannia in rice fields in China.
Nomenclature: Bispyribac-sodium; fluroxypyr; MCPA; MCPA bentazone; MCPA fluroxypyr; triquetrous murdannia, Murdannia triquetra (Wall.) Bruckn.; rice, Oryza sativa L.