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1 March 2017 Evaluation of Dicamba Persistence among Various Agricultural Hose Types and Cleanout Procedures Using Soybean (Glycine max) as a Bio-Indicator
Gary T. Cundiff, Daniel B. Reynolds, Thomas C. Mueller
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Synthetic rubbers, synthetic plastic polymers (polyvinyl chlorides [PVC]), polyurethane blends, and polyethylene blends make up modern-day agricultural spray hoses. The objective of this study was to determine whether agricultural hose types would differ with respect to 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) sequestration. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the sequestration potential of dicamba within five agricultural hose types when cleaned with different cleanout procedures. Rinsate solutions were applied to soybean, which was used as a bio-indicator to test for cleanout efficiency. Differences among hose types and cleanout procedures exist with observations including soybean injury, height reduction, dry matter, yield, and part per million by volume (ppmv) analyte retained. The makeup of PVC polyurethane-blend and synthetic rubber–blend hoses increased retention of dicamba analyte when compared with the polyethylene blend hose. No differences were observed after the addition of ammonia to the cleanout solution when compared with water alone. Differences in a hose type's ability to sequester the dicamba analyte may have more to do with the hose's internal chemical composition, manufacturing process, and composition breakdown. Scanning electron microscopy revealed imperfections in new PVC polyurethane and synthetic rubber hoses that eventually lead to inner wall depletion of these hose types. This is in contrast to what was found in the polyethylene-blend hose type, in which the inner wall is smooth and free of imperfections.

Nomenclature: dicamba; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.

© Weed Science Society of America, 2017 
Gary T. Cundiff, Daniel B. Reynolds, and Thomas C. Mueller "Evaluation of Dicamba Persistence among Various Agricultural Hose Types and Cleanout Procedures Using Soybean (Glycine max) as a Bio-Indicator," Weed Science 65(2), 305-316, (1 March 2017).
Received: 5 May 2016; Accepted: 1 October 2016; Published: 1 March 2017
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