Foxtail sophora is a widely distributed problematic weed in western Iranian dryland farming systems. Little information is available on seed germination and seedling emergence of this weed species in response to environmental and agronomic factors. This study was conducted to address this knowledge gap. Maximum seed germination (80%) occurred at 25C and decreased at lower temperatures (<1% at 5C) or under fluctuating temperature regimes. Light and pH did not have any substantial effect on seed germination. Foxtail sophora was tolerant to osmotic stress and moderately tolerant to sodium chloride. It was tolerant to salinity and drought stress during germination, which suggests that the population of this weed may increase in western farmlands of Iran. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried at depths greater than 6 cm, which indicates that minimum- and no-till systems would increase seedling emergence of this species. Therefore, using sweep cultivators would be beneficial in management of foxtail sophora seedlings in the drylands of west of Iran.
Nomenclature: Foxtail sophora, Sophora alopecuroides L.