Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) is the most widespread broadleaf weed species infesting winter cereals in Europe. Biotypes that are resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, have evolved in recent decades, thus narrowing the options for effective chemical control. Though the effectiveness of several integrated weed management (IWM) strategies have been confirmed, none of these strategies have been tested to manage multiple herbicide–resistant P. rhoeas under no-till planting. With the expansion of no-till systems, it is important to prove the effectiveness of such strategies. In this study, a field experiment over three consecutive seasons was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of different weed management strategies, under either direct drilling (i.e., no-till) or intensive tillage, on a multiple herbicide–resistant P. rhoeas population. Moreover, evaluations were carried out as to whether the proportions of ALS inhibitor–resistant individuals were affected by the tillage systems for each IWM strategy at the end of the 3-yr period. The IWM strategies tested in this research included crop rotation, delayed sowing, and different herbicide programs such as PRE plus POST or POST. All IWM strategies greatly reduced the initial density of P. rhoeas each season (≥ 95%) under either direct drilling or intensive tillage. After 3 yr, the IWM strategies were very effective in both tillage systems, though the effects were stronger under direct drilling ( ∼95%) compared with intensive tillage (∼86%). At the end of the study, the proportion of ALS inhibitor–resistant plants was not different between the IWM strategies in both tillage systems (94% on average). Therefore, crop rotation (with sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.]), delayed sowing, or a variation in the herbicide application timing are effective under direct drilling to manage herbicide-resistant P. rhoeas. Adoption of IWM strategies is necessary to mitigate the evolution of resistance in both conventional and no-till systems.
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Vol. 66 • No. 6