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9 October 2019 Multiple Resistance to PPO and ALS Inhibitors in Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)
Hao Wang, Hengzhi Wang, Ning Zhao, Baolin Zhu, Penglei Sun, Weitang Liu, Jinxin Wang
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A redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) population (HN-02) collected from Nenjiang County, Heilongjiang Province, exhibited multiple resistance to fomesafen and nicosulfuron. The purposes of this study were to characterize the herbicide resistance status of an HN-02 population for both acetolactate synthase (ALS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors and the response to other herbicides and to investigate the target site-based mechanism governing fomesafen and nicosulfuron resistance. Three mutations, Ala-205-Val and Trp-574-Leu mutations in the ALS gene and an Arg-128-Gly mutation in the PPX2 gene, were identified in individual resistant plants. An HN-02F1-1 subpopulation homozygous for the Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations was generated, and whole-plant experiments confirmed multiple resistance to PPO inhibitors (fomesafen, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, and acifluorfen) and ALS inhibitors (imidazolinones [IMI], sulfonylureas [SU], and triazolopyrimidines [TP]) in the HN-02F1-1 plants, which presented resistance index values ranging from 8.3 to 110; however, these plants were sensitive to flumioxazin, fluroxypyr-meptyl, and 2,4-D butylate. In vitro ALS enzyme activity assays revealed that, compared with ALS from susceptible plants, ALS from the HN-02F1-1 plants was 15-, 28- and 320-fold resistant to flumetsulam, nicosulfuron, and imazethapyr, respectively. This study confirms the first case of multiple resistance to PPO and ALS inhibitors in A. retroflexus and determines that the target-site resistance mechanism was produced by Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations in the ALS gene and PPX2 gene, respectively. In particular, the Ala-205-Val mutation was found to endow resistance to three classes of ALS inhibitors: TP, SU, and IMI.

© Weed Science Society of America, 2019.
Hao Wang, Hengzhi Wang, Ning Zhao, Baolin Zhu, Penglei Sun, Weitang Liu, and Jinxin Wang "Multiple Resistance to PPO and ALS Inhibitors in Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)," Weed Science 68(1), 19-26, (9 October 2019).
Received: 23 July 2019; Accepted: 20 October 2019; Published: 9 October 2019

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