Hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] is often called the “perfect aquatic weed,” as it has numerous physiological adaptations that make it highly aggressive and competitive. Hydrilla verticillata has historically been managed effectively using fluridone; however, the overreliance on this single mechanism of action (MOA) resulted in evolved fluridone resistance in the late 1990s. Where fluridone-resistant H. verticillata populations evolved, endothall became widely used for H. verticillata control. In 2018, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, a highly active auxin-mimic herbicide, was registered for H. verticillata control, and its use has increased since its introduction. Endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl provide two effective MOAs for H. verticillata management, and combining these two MOAs would be an effective strategy to delay further resistance evolution. The objective of this research was to determine whether combining endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl would significantly impact the behavior of either herbicide in dioecious (DHV) or monoecious (MHV) H. verticillata compared with their behavior when applied alone. Endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl absorption and accumulation alone and in combination were measured over a 192-h time course. Translocation patterns were also determined. Herbicide accumulation in MHV and DHV was not impacted when these herbicides were applied in combination. Endothall translocation from shoots to roots in DHV was not impacted (alone = 18.7 ± 1.4%; combination = 23.2 ± 2.2%); however, endothall shoot-to-root translocation in MHV was reduced from 16.2 ± 1.3% applied alone to 2.2 ± 0.1% when applied in combination with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl shoot-to-root translocation was reduced in both MHV and DHV when applied in combination with endothall. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl translocation was reduced by 16- and 6-fold in DHV and MHV, respectively. These data do not suggest that there would be operational impacts from endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl mixtures. Still, there appear to be changes in herbicide behavior, primarily shoot-to-root translocation, when these two herbicides are applied in combination.
Vol. 70 • No. 5
Vol. 70 • No. 5