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20 April 2023 Effect of Temperature and Heat Units on Zoysiagrass Response to Herbicides During Post-Dormancy Transition
Jordan M. Craft, Navdeep Godara, John R. Brewer, Shawn D. Askew
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In the transition zone, turfgrass managers generally utilize the dormancy period of warm-season turfgrass to apply herbicides for managing winter annual weeds. Although this weed control strategy is common in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], it has been less adopted in zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) due to variable turfgrass injury during post-dormancy transition. Previous research reported that air temperature could affect weed control and crop safety from herbicides. Growth-chamber studies were conducted to evaluate zoysiagrass response to glyphosate and glufosinate as influenced by three different temperature regimes during and after treatment. A field research study was conducted at four site-years to assess the influence of variable heat-unit accumulation on zoysiagrass response to seven herbicides. In the growth-chamber study, glufosinate injured zoysiagrass more than glyphosate and reduced time to reach 50% green cover reduction, regardless of the rate, when incubated for 7 d under different temperature levels. When green zoysiagrass sprigs were incubated for 7 d at 10 C, the rate of green cover reduction was slowed for both herbicides; however, green cover was rapidly reduced under 27 C. After treated zoysiagrass plugs having 5% green cover were incubated at 10 C for 14 d, glyphosate-treated plugs reached 50% green cover in 22 d, similar to nontreated plugs but less than the 70 d required for glufosinate-treated plugs. Zoysiagrass response to glyphosate was temperature dependent, but glufosinate injured zoysiagrass unacceptably regardless of temperature regime. Diquat, flumioxazin, glufosinate, and metsulfuron + rimsulfuron injured zoysiagrass at 200 or 300 growing-degree days at base 5 C (GDD5C) application timings, but foramsulfuron and oxadiazon did not injure zoysiagrass regardless of GDD5C. The relationship of leaf density to green turf cover is dependent on zoysiagrass mowing height, and both metrics are reduced by injurious herbicides. Research indicates that glufosinate injures zoysiagrass more than glyphosate, and the speed and magnitude of herbicide injury generally increase with temperature.

Jordan M. Craft, Navdeep Godara, John R. Brewer, and Shawn D. Askew "Effect of Temperature and Heat Units on Zoysiagrass Response to Herbicides During Post-Dormancy Transition," Weed Science 71(3), 233-243, (20 April 2023).
Received: 27 February 2023; Accepted: 10 April 2023; Published: 20 April 2023
growing-degree day
leaf density
nonselective herbicides
selective herbicides
turfgrass injury
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