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2 August 2023 Hazelnut Abscission is Delayed by Simulated Drift of 2,4-D
Marcelo L. Moretti, Larissa Larroca de Souza
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Abstract

The herbicide 2,4-D is commonly used for sucker control in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). However, the use of 2,4-D for sucker control has been implicated in delaying natural abscission in hazelnut. Hazelnuts naturally abscise and are collected from the orchard floor. Delays in abscission may reduce nut quality due to the onset of the rainy season, increasing mold and mud in the nuts. The effect of basal-directed applications of 2,4-D on hazelnut abscission, yield, and quality was assessed. In the first study, four basal-directed applications of 2,4-D (1.06 kg ae ha–1) did not affect hazelnut abscission, yield, or quality compared with glufosinate (1.1 kg ai ha–1) or manual pruning. In a second 3-yr study, a single yearly simulated drift of 2,4-D to the tree canopy at 0.06 and 0.6 mg L–1 increased the growing degree-day requirement from 50 to 141 to reach 50% hazelnut abscission, compared with the nontreated control. This is the equivalent of 5 to 15 calendar days. No effect was observed in the third year of the study when the simulated drift was not performed. No differences in abscission were observed with basal-directed applications of 2,4-D at rates up to 4.4 kg ha–1 when applied four times each season during all 3 yr of the study. Simulated drift reduced hazelnut yield by up to 37% and reduced the percentage of marketable nuts during 1 yr of the study. No effect on average kernel weight was observed. However, 2,4-D drift did delay hazelnut abscission, highlighting the importance of drift control measures.

Marcelo L. Moretti and Larissa Larroca de Souza "Hazelnut Abscission is Delayed by Simulated Drift of 2,4-D," Weed Science 71(5), 506-513, (2 August 2023). https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2023.43
Received: 10 March 2023; Accepted: 24 July 2023; Published: 2 August 2023
KEYWORDS
Auxin
Crop injury
tree nuts
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