Abstract: An experiment was conducted at six locations in North Carolina to compare weed-management treatments using glufosinate postemergence (POST) in glufosinate-resistant soybean, glyphosate POST in glyphosate-resistant soybean, and imazaquin plus SAN 582 preemergence (PRE) followed by chlorimuron POST in nontransgenic soybean. Prickly sida and sicklepod were controlled similarly and 84 to 100% by glufosinate and glyphosate. Glyphosate controlled broadleaf signalgrass, fall panicum, goosegrass, rhizomatous johnsongrass, common lambsquarters, and smooth pigweed at least 90%. Control of these weeds by glyphosate often was greater than control by glufosinate. Mixing fomesafen with glufosinate increased control of these species except johnsongrass. Glufosinate often was more effective than glyphosate on entireleaf and tall morningglories. Fomesafen mixed with glyphosate increased morningglory control but reduced smooth pigweed control. Glufosinate or glyphosate applied sequentially or early postemergence (EPOST) following imazaquin plus SAN 582 PRE often were more effective than glufosinate or glyphosate applied only EPOST. Only rhizomatous johnsongrass was controlled more effectively by glufosinate or glyphosate treatments than by imazaquin plus SAN 582 PRE followed by chlorimuron POST. Yields and net returns with soil-applied herbicides only were often lower than total POST herbicide treatments. Sequential POST herbicide applications or soil-applied herbicides followed by POST herbicides were usually more effective economically than single POST herbicide applications.
Nomenclature: Chlorimuron, ethyl 2-[[[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl] amino]sulfonyl]benzoate; SAN 582 (proposed name, dimethenamid), 2-chloro-N-[(1-methyl-2-methoxy)ethyl]-N-(2,4-dimethyl-thien-3-yl)-acetamide; fomesafen, 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrobenzamide; glufosinate, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl) butanoic acid; glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine; imazaquin, 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid; broadleaf signalgrass, Brachiaria platyphylla (Griseb.) Nash #2 BRAPP; carpetweed, Mollugo verticillata L. # MOLVE; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. # CHEAL; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. # AMBEL; cutleaf groundcherry, Physalis angulata L. # PHYAN; eclipta, Eclipta prostrata L. # ECLAL; entireleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula Gray # IPOHG; fall panicum, Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. # PANDI; goosegrass, Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. # ELEIN; johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. # SORHA; prickly sida, Sida spinosa L. # SIDSP; sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia L. Irwin and Barneby # CASOB; smooth pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L. # AMACH; tall morningglory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth # PHBPU; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Asgrow 5403 LL’, ‘Asgrow 5547 LL’, ‘Asgrow 5602 RR’, ‘Hartz 5566 RR’, ‘Southern States FFR 595’.
Additional index words: Herbicide-resistant crops, Liberty Link soybean, nontransgenic soybean, Roundup Ready soybean.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; EPOST, early postemergence; EPSPS, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase; LPOST, late postemergence; POST, postemergence; PRE, preemergence; THR, transgenic, herbicide-resistant; WAA, weeks after late postemergence application; WAP, weeks after planting.