Abstract: A field study evaluated the effects of green kyllinga establishment method (seed vs. stolon), two mowing heights (2.5 and 5.0 cm), and three nitrogen (N) rates (0, 24, and 49 kg/ha/mo) on green kyllinga infestation in ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass turf. The study was initiated in vigorous and newly established or “weak” bermudagrass turf in May 1997 and continued until December 1998. The green kyllinga area was measured periodically each year and plant dry weight (g/500 cm2) was calculated in December 1997 and 1998. In 1997, stolon established green kyllinga plots were twice as large as seeded plots in vigorous turf and four times larger in weak turf. Method of establishment, however, was less important in 1998 as seedling populations became more established. In weak turf, increasing N rate to 49 kg/ha/mo decreased green kyllinga spread by 50% in 1997 and by 40% in 1998 compared to no N. In vigorous turf, mowing height influenced green kyllinga infestation more than N. Low mowing height (2.5 cm) increased green kyllinga infestations nearly twofold in vigorous turf in 1997 and more than fivefold in 1998. Golf course fairways are often maintained at clipping heights shorter than 2.5 cm, and green kyllinga is a prevalent weed at these sites. Green kyllinga may gain a competitive advantage in bermudagrass turf at lower mowing heights.
Nomenclature: Green kyllinga, Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.; bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon Burtt-Davey × C. transvaalensis L. Pers. Tifway.
Additional index words: Turfgrass cultural practices, weed competition, weed ecology.
Abbreviations: N, nitrogen.