Abstract: Dissipation of imidazolinone herbicides imazaquin and imazethapyr under no-till field conditions was not affected by straw mulch level (1,300, 3,600, or 5,900 kg/ha) in either of 2 yr of field data. Half-lives averaged 7 d for imazaquin and 8 d for imazethapyr. Chlorimuron half-lives averaged 5 d. Imazaquin and imazethapyr residues did not injure corn (Zea mays) the growing season following application. Injury from chlorimuron to corn planted the next year was greatest where applications were made to the highest straw level, reducing corn yield 6%. In laboratory experiments, uniformly cut wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw placed over sand intercepted all three herbicides equally. Herbicide interception was 16, 43, 69, and 89% for straw levels of 840, 1,680, 3,360, and 6,720 kg/ha, respectively. In the laboratory, simulated rainfall removed more imazaquin and imazethapyr from straw than chlorimuron, and approximately 10% of the applied imazaquin or imazethapyr and 20% of the applied chlorimuron remained on the straw after application of 1.0 cm of water. Imazaquin and imazethapyr dissipated 59 and 20%, respectively, during a 7-d incubation period in the greenhouse. Imazaquin dissipation was equal between sand and straw, whereas imazethapyr dissipation was primarily from sand. Chlorimuron did not dissipate from either straw or sand. This indicated that chlorimuron, a sulfonylurea, was more stable than either imidazolinone under these conditions.
Nomenclature: Chlorimuron; imazaquin; imazethapyr; wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Caldwell’; corn, Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer 3369A’, ‘Pioneer 3320’.
Additional index words: Degradation, imidazolinone, persistence, photodegradation, photolysis, rotational crop, sulfonylurea.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; WAP, weeks after planting.