Ground ivy is an invasive, perennial, broadleaf weed common in turf sites. A recent survey of lawn care professionals suggests ground ivy populations respond differently to herbicides. Our study was conducted to determine the variation in response among and within ground ivy populations to 2,4-D or triclopyr application. Ground ivy populations were sampled from nine sites in the United States and Canada. Leaf width, petiole length, and internode length varied by population by as much as 31, 36, and 45%, respectively. In a greenhouse study, applying 4.5 kg/ha 2,4-D or 0.9 kg/ha triclopyr to all populations resulted in a phytotoxic response that varied according to population by as much as 47% for 2,4-D and 31% for triclopyr. Random-amplified polymorphic DNA analysis identified 52 genotypes in the nine populations, and these genotypes varied in response to 2,4-D application in some populations. Difficulty in control of ground ivy with 2,4-D or triclopyr may be because of the presence of ecotypes and biotypes.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; triclopyr; ground ivy, Glechoma hederacea L. #3 GLEHE.
Additional index words: Biotype, ecotype, herbicide screening, resistance, tolerance.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; FW, fresh weight; LCO, lawn care operator; RAPD, random-amplified polymorphic DNA; RFW, regrowth fresh weight.