A general life cycle model was modified to demonstrate how agronomic practices and weed biology factors affect the rate of appearance of herbicide-resistant downy brome, jointed goatgrass, and wild oat in Pacific Northwest wheat cropping systems. The model suggests herbicide rotation strategies for cropping systems that include imidazolinone-resistant wheat as a weed management tool. Simulation of continuous annual imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat and imazamox herbicide use resulted in the resistant soil seed banks of downy brome, jointed goatgrass, and wild oat surpassing their susceptible soil seed banks in 5, 7, and 10 yr, respectively. Reducing the initial seed bank density of downy brome before beginning a rotation that includes imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat reduces the likelihood of selecting for herbicide-resistant biotypes. The best simulated management option for reducing the total jointed goatgrass soil seed bank in low-precipitation areas is an imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat–fallow rotation. Rotations that include winter and spring crops and rotations that include non–group 2 herbicides minimize herbicide resistance selection pressure and reduce the wild oat soil seed bank.
Nomenclature: Imazamox; downy brome, Bromus tectorum L. # BROTE; jointed goatgrass, Aegilops cylindrica Host #3 AEGCY; wild oat, Avena fatua L. # AVEFA; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Clearfield™.
Additional index words: Crop rotation, population model, resistance management.
Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase; PNW, Pacific Northwest.