The effect of planting system and cover crop residues on weed emergence in irrigated vegetable row crops was studied in field experiments from 1995 through 1997. Vegetable crops were either no-till planted (NTP) through cover crop residues or conventionally planted (CP) into soil with cover crop residues incorporated. NTP reduced emergence of hairy nightshade by 77 to 99% and Powell amaranth emergence by 50 to 87% compared with CP. Cover crop treatments were much less important than planting system in regulating weed emergence. Tillage in the spring did not increase the number of viable seeds near the soil surface. Hairy nightshade emergence ranged from 0.6 to 9.8% of the intact seeds in CP compared with 0 to 0.1% emergence of the seeds in the NTP plots. Powell amaranth emergence ranged from 4.9 to 6.5% of the intact seeds in CP contrasted with only 0.4 to 0.9% emergence of the seeds in NTP plots.
Nomenclature: Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtner #3 SOLSA; Powell amaranth, Amaranthus powellii S. Wats # AMAPO.
Additional index words: Conventional tillage, cover crops, no till, no-till planting, primary tillage, weed emergence, weed seedbank.
Abbreviations: CP, conventionally planted; NT, no till; NTP, no-till planted; WAP, weeks after planting.