Field experiments were conducted at four locations (Larissa, Halkidona, Thessaloniki, and Halastra) in Greece to evaluate weed and cotton response to various pyrithiobac rates applied preplant incorporated (PPI), preemergence (PRE), or postemergence (POST). Pyrithiobac applied PPI or PRE at 0.068, 0.102, or 0.136 kg ai/ha controlled black nightshade, pigweeds, and common purslane at Larissa. However, pyrithiobac applied PRE at Thessaloniki and Halkidona was more effective against black nightshade and pigweeds than pyrithiobac applied PPI. Pyrithiobac applied PPI or PRE at 0.068 or 0.102 kg/ha did not control common lambsquarters at Thessaloniki. Weed control with trifluralin plus fluometuron applied PPI and alachlor plus fluometuron applied PRE at Larissa was slightly lower than that obtained with pyrithiobac. At Halkidona, trifluralin plus fluometuron applied PPI and alachlor plus fluometuron applied PRE provided weed control similar to that obtained with pyrithiobac. But at Thessaloniki, these treatments provided better weed control than pyrithiobac. Furthermore, pyrithiobac applied early postemergence (EPOST), midpostemergence, or in sequential systems controlled black nightshade and pigweeds, but it resulted in fair to good control of common purslane, velvetleaf, and common cocklebur. None of the POST treatments controlled common lambsquarters. Fluometuron EPOST controlled black nightshade, common lambsquarters, and common purslane ≥70, 86, and 67%, respectively. Fluometuron EPOST did not control pigweeds, velvetleaf, and common cocklebur. Cotton treated with pyrithiobac, regardless of method of application, yielded similar to the weed-free control. Cotton treated with pyrithiobac PPI at the highest rate (0.136 kg/ ha) yielded less at Halkidona, although adverse effects after its application were not visually apparent. Yield of cotton treated with herbicides was similar, with no difference among treatments.
Nomenclature: Alachlor; fluometuron; pyrithiobac; trifluralin; black nightshade, Solanum nigrum L. #3 SOLNI; common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. # XANST; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. # CHEAL; common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L. # POROL; prostrate pigweed, Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats AMABL; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus # ABUTH; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘Stoneville 474’, ‘Hazera Vered’, ‘Deltapine 20’, ‘Deltapine 50’, ‘Stoneville Bravo’.
Additional index words: Application timing, cotton herbicide, crop injury, residual activity.
Abbreviations: EPOST, early postemergence; MPOST, midpostemergence; MSMA, monosodium salt of methylarsonic acid; POST, postemergence; PPI, preplant incorporated; PRE, preemergence; WAP, weeks after planting; WAT, weeks after treatment.