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Tropical spiderwort (more appropriately called Benghal dayflower) poses a serious threat to crop production in the southern United States. Although tropical spiderwort has been present in the United States for more than seven decades, only recently has it become a pest in agricultural fields. Identified as an isolated weed problem in 1999, tropical spiderwort became the most troublesome weed in Georgia cotton by 2003. Contributing to the significance of tropical spiderwort as a troublesome weed is the lack of control afforded by most commonly used herbicides, especially glyphosate. Vegetative growth and flower production of tropical spiderwort were optimized between 30 and 35 C, but growth was sustained over a range of 20 to 40 C. These temperatures are common throughout much of the United States during summer months. At the very least, it appears that tropical spiderwort may be able to co-occur with cotton throughout the southeastern United States. The environmental limits of tropical spiderwort have not yet been determined. However, the rapid spread through Georgia and naturalization in North Carolina, coupled with its tolerance to current management strategies and aggressive growth habit, make tropical spiderwort a significant threat to agroecosystems in the southern United States.
Additional index words: Exotic invasive weed, federal noxious weed, Benghal dayflower.
Spatial patterns of the exotic riverine knotgrass (Paspalum distichum L.) were examined in Mediterranean river basins in Southwestern Iberia. The major goals of this study were to assess the degree of invasibility of riparian habitats by this species and to determine the influence of environmental factors and human-induced disturbances that this knotgrass has on both the landscape and the habitat scales. The present study demonstrates the ability of knotgrass to invade riparian habitats in Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. However, most of the spatial variation of the knotgrass cover seemed to be driven by local factors, such as fine sediment enrichment and the fragmentation of riparian woods, and by other anthropogenic interferences in relation to both the fluvial system and the surrounding landscape.
Nomenclature: Knotgrass, Paspalum distichum L. #3 PASDS.
Additional index words: Exotic species, human disturbances, environmental variables, PASDS, Mediterranean basin.
Junipers (Juniperus spp.) are native woody shrubs that have expanded beyond their normal historical ranges in the western and southwestern United States since the late 1800s. Most ecologists and resource managers agree that juniper has become a deleterious native invasive plant that threatens other vegetation ecosystems, such as grasslands, through a steady encroachment and ultimate domination. The use of fire in managing junipers is based on a management goal to increase the disturbance return interval and thereby reduce the abundance and/or competitive impact of juniper in an ecosystem. In this paper, we discuss rates of juniper encroachment in relation to presettlement fire regimes, juniper encroachment and soil health, postfire vegetation responses, and long-term potential of different juniper treatment scenarios that involve prescribed fire.
Invasive alien species (IAS) are a major threat to biological diversity on a global scale, necessitating international cooperation to address the problem. This paper gives the context in which action against IAS needs to take place, explains the need for international cooperation, and provides examples of key international instruments, strategies, and programs to deal with IAS.
Additional index words: Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Invasive Species Program, International Plant Protection Convention, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Invasive Species Specialist Group, World Conservation Union.
Abbreviations: CBD, UN Convention on Biological Diversity; GISD, Global Invasive Species Database; GISP, Global Invasive Species Program; IAS, invasive alien species; IPPC, International Plant Protection Convention; ISPM, International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures; ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; IUCN,The World Conservation Union; PRA, Pest Risk Analysis; SPREP, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Program.
The response of rice and barnyardgrass to clomazone rates (0.22, 0.45, 0.67, 0.9, and 1.12 kg ai/ha) and application timings of preplant incorporated, preemergence (PRE), and delayed PRE (DPRE) were evaluated from 1997 to 1999. Rice bleaching at 14 d after planting (DAP) increased from 5 to 35% as the clomazone rate increased. At 14 and 49 DAP, barnyardgrass control decreased with clomazone at 0.22 kg/ha compared with control at higher rates. Clomazone at 0.22 kg/ha resulted in lower grain yield. Clomazone PRE caused less rice bleaching and lower grain yield compared with DPRE timings. These results indicate that initial bleaching by high clomazone rates may not translate into yield loss. Higher clomazone rates may increase rice yield by improving weed control.
Postemergence-applied diuron effectively controls yellow woodsorrel in nursery crops grown in pine bark–based container substrate. Whether the phytotoxicity of diuron on yellow woodsorrel is exclusively the result of foliar activity or is partially the result of root-based activity has not been determined. Application in which diuron was allowed to contact both the foliage and the pine bark–based substrate provided 84% control as determined by shoot fresh-weight reduction relative to that of a nontreated control. Foliar-only and root-only applications provided 52 and 12% shoot fresh-weight reduction, respectively. Absorption and translocation of foliar-applied diuron by yellow woodsorrel was evaluated using radiotracer techniques. After 24 h, 86% of the applied diuron had been absorbed, and 76% of the amount applied remained in the treated leaflet, indicating minimal translocation. Diuron sorption by the pine bark–based substrate was evaluated using radiotracer techniques. After 3 h, less than 6% of applied diuron remained in the aqueous phase, indicating 94% sorption. Exposing yellow woodsorrel roots to diuron concentrations as low as 0.50 mg/L resulted in injury, and concentrations equal to or greater than 10 mg/L resulted in death. Calculations described herein indicate the concentration that probably would occur within the aqueous solution held within the substrate following a 1.12-kg ai/ha application is sufficient to be phytotoxic to yellow woodsorrel. Thus, root-based absorption is a contributing factor in the overall efficacy of postemergence-applied diuron in controlling yellow woodsorrel.
Nomenclature: Diuron; yellow woodsorrel, Oxalis stricta L. #3 OXAST.
Additional index words: Herbicide translocation, soil sorption.
Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; PPFD, photosynthetic photon flux density; WAT, weeks after treatment.
Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the utility of an in vivo acetolactate synthase (ALS) assay for comparing sensitivity to imazamox among imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars/lines. Ten single-gene imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat cultivars/lines, one two-gene and four single-gene imidazolinone-resistant spring wheat cultivars/lines, and three pairs of heterozygous and homozygous imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat lines were evaluated in the assay experiments. Additionally, a dose-response assay was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of several imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars to imazamox on a whole plant level. The I50 value (i.e., the imazamox dose that inhibited ALS activity by 50%) of the winter wheat cultivar ‘Above’ was 54 to 84% higher than the I50 values of 99-420, 99-433, and CV-9804. However, based on the results of this study, it is unclear whether genetic background or market class (hard red winter vs. soft white winter) influences the level of ALS inhibition by imazamox. Teal 15A, the two-gene imidazolinone-resistant spring wheat cultivar, had an I50 value that was two to three times greater than the I50 value of the single-gene imidazolinone-resistant spring wheat cultivars/lines. The heterozygous imidazolinone-resistant wheat lines had I50 values that were 69 to 81% less than the I50 values of the homozygous lines. In the whole plant dose response, the R50 values (i.e., the imazamox dose that reduced biomass by 50%) of the susceptible cultivars Brundage 96 and Conan were 15 to 17 times less than the homozygous single-gene imidazolinone-resistant winter and spring cultivars/lines, whose R50 values were about 1.7 times less than the R50 value of the two-gene imidazolinone-resistant spring wheat line, Teal 15A. The results of the in vivo ALS imazamox assays and the whole plant imazamox dose-response assay were similar, indicating that the in vivo assay can be used to accurately and quickly compare resistance between imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars/lines.
Nomenclature: Imazamox, wheat, Triticum aestivum L.
Additional index words: Crop safety, herbicide tolerance, herbicide-resistant wheat, in vivo ALS assay.
Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase; CPCA, 1,1-cyclopropanedicarboxylic acid; I50, imazamox dose that inhibited ALS activity by 50%; KARI, keto-acid reductoisomerase; R50, imazamox dose that reduced biomass 50%.
Studies were conducted in the summer and fall of 2001 in North Brunswick, NJ, and Marion County, Oregon, to evaluate the response of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible creeping bentgrass hybrids, colonial bentgrass, redtop, and dryland bentgrass grown as individual plants to postemergence (POST) herbicides. Glyphosate at 1.7 kg ae/ha, glufosinate at 1.7 kg ai/ha, fluazifop-P at 0.3 and 0.4 kg ai/ha, clethodim at 0.3 kg ai/ha, sethoxydim at 0.5 kg ai/ha, and a combination of glyphosate and fluazifop-P were applied 6 wk after planting. Glyphosate provided almost complete control of all susceptible bentgrass species at 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Glufosinate provided 95% or greater control of all bentgrass species at 4 WAT, but regrowth was observed on all species in the summer experiment in Oregon. Fluazifop-P, clethodim, and sethoxydim provided slower control of bentgrass species, which ranged from 38 to 94% at 4 WAT, depending on species, herbicide, and experimental location. By 8 WAT, fluazifop-P at 0.4 kg/ha applied alone or in combination with glyphosate showed the highest levels of control (>90%) across all bentgrass species. Studies were also conducted in 2002 in the spring and summer in North Carolina to evaluate the response of a mature stand of glyphosate-susceptible ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass to POST herbicides. Two applications of glyphosate at 1.7 kg/ha were required to achieve 98% bentgrass control at 8 WAT. Fluazifop-P at 0.4 kg/ha, clethodim at 0.3 kg/ha, and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg/ha exhibited herbicidal activity, but two applications were required to reach (>82%) control of bentgrass at 8 WAT. Two sequential applications of clethodim or the combination of glyphosate and fluazifop-P provided 98% control of bentgrass at 8 WAT. Of the other herbicide treatments evaluated, only atrazine and sulfosulfuron provided (>80%) control at 8 WAT. The results of these studies demonstrate that fluazifop-P, clethodim, and sethoxydim have substantial herbicide activity on bentgrass species and may be viable alternatives to glyphosate for control of glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass and related bentgrass species in areas where they are not wanted. Glufosinate, atrazine, and sulfosulfuron also exhibited substantial herbicidal activity on bentgrass, and further research with these herbicides is warranted.
Field studies were conducted to evaluate residual herbicides applied alone and with a contact weed control program in peanut in Georgia and Alabama. Residual herbicide treatments included pendimethalin preemergence (PRE) at 924 g ai/ha, diclosulam PRE at 18 and 26 g ai/ha, flumioxazin PRE at 70 and 104 g ai/ha, sulfentrazone PRE at 168 and 280 g ai/ha, and imazapic postemergence (POST) at 71 g ai/ha. All herbicides were applied alone and in combination with an early postemergence (EPOST) application of paraquat plus bentazon. Peanut injury ranged from 0 to 7% for diclosulam, from 0 to 28% for flumioxazin, from 0 to 59% for sulfentrazone, from 0 to 15% for imazapic, and from 4 to 12% for paraquat plus bentazon. Across locations and years, Florida beggarweed control was 92% or greater with flumioxazin PRE at 104 g/ha, 77% or greater with diclosulam PRE at 26 g/ha, 80% or greater with sulfentrazone PRE at 280 g/ha, ranged from 54 to 86% for imazapic POST, and was 68% or less for paraquat plus bentazon EPOST. For diclosulam, sulfentrazone, and imazapic, including paraquat plus bentazon EPOST improved Florida beggarweed control vs. these treatments alone. However, flumioxazin alone provided consistent and season-long Florida beggarweed control without paraquat plus bentazon EPOST. Sicklepod control with imazapic was consistently greater than 90%, but it was 70% or less with diclosulam, flumioxazin, and sulfentrazone. Paraquat plus bentazon EPOST used with the residual herbicide treatments resulted in variable sicklepod control ranging from 40 to 99%. Yellow nutsedge control was 95% or greater with sulfentrazone, varied from 56 to 93% with diclosulam, and was 87% or greater with imazapic. Tall and smallflower morningglory, wild poinsettia, Palmer amaranth, and bristly starbur control varied by residual herbicide treatment. Yields were similar for diclosulam, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, and imazapic treated peanut.
Cogongrass continues to be one of the most invasive weeds in the subhumid savanna. Herbicide application expenses depend on equipment costs, costs of water transport for spraying, and chemical costs. In three on-farm experiments on land heavily infested with cogongrass, the effectiveness of a knapsack sprayer (KS), a very low volume sprayer (VLV), and a rope wick (RW) applicator was tested at Ijaye, Nigeria, from 2000 to 2001. The sprayers differed in application method, price, and carrier volume required. The dose–response curves for the three applicators were identical in all parameters except at very high doses for the RW. Consequently, there were no apparent differences in glyphosate effectiveness, even when it was applied with different equipment and different carrier volumes. However, even at very high doses, the RW was not as efficient as was the KS and VLV. Actual biomass reduction of cogongrass was greater with the KS and VLV. Even though the KS and VLV generally gave better control levels than the RW, the latter is more user-friendly because it does not require protective masks, which are often unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa. In a situation with labor scarcity, weeding with the RW was cheaper than hand weeding with hoes. The VLV was more economical when used on areas larger than 10 ha than was the RW. The KS was more economical than all other methods when used on areas larger than 2 ha.
Field trials were conducted to determine the effect of fumigant-pebulate combinations on purple nutsedge density in fresh market tomato. Treatments consisted of methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr plus Pic) [67:33] at rates of 270 and 130 kg/ha, respectively; Pic plus pebulate at 400 and 4.5 kg/ha, respectively; metham (MNa) plus pebulate at 485 and 4.5 kg/ha, respectively; dazomet plus pebulate at 950 and 4.5 kg/ha, respectively; and 1,3-dicholopropene plus Pic (C-17) [87:13] plus pebulate at 392 and 4.5 kg/ha, respectively. At 12 wk after treatment, MBr plus Pic controlled purple nutsedge more effectively (10 plants/m2) than the fumigant-pebulate combinations (50 to 70 plants/m2). Compared to MBr plus Pic, Pic plus pebulate had a 14% lower marketable yield. No differences in marketable yield were noted with dazomet plus pebulate or C-17 plus pebulate compared to MBr plus Pic. However, MNa plus pebulate produced a 15% higher yield than MBr plus Pic. Additionally, MNa plus pebulate had 15% higher marketable fruit weight than MBr plus Pic.
The impact of the management variables soybean cultivar, row spacing, population density, and shading was evaluated on the incidence of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on glyphosate-resistant soybeans in an irrigated glyphosate-resistant soybean management system. Soybean canopy development, flower number, soil moisture, disease severity, and soybean yield were evaluated on three glyphosate-resistant cultivars, Pioneer ‘92B71’ (upright), Asgrow ‘AG2701’ (bushy), and Asgrow ‘AG2702’ (bushy). Three different row spacing–target population combinations of 76 cm, 430,000 seeds/ha; 19 cm, 430,000 seeds/ha; and 19 cm, 560,000 seeds/ha were evaluated. Cultivars 92B71 and AG2701 had 42 and 15% lower disease severity indexes and 38 and 19% greater yields than AG2702, respectively. The actual average population of 92B71 was 9 and 20% lower than actual average populations of AG2701 and AG2702, respectively. Disease severity indexes were lower and yield was higher when population was reduced from 560,000 seeds/ha to 430,000 seeds/ha in 19-cm rows. When averaged over the entire study, population was positively correlated with disease severity index (r2 = 0.33; P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with yield (r2 = −0.13; P = 0.0140). Reduction of soybean population was more important than increasing row spacing to manage SSR in an irrigated system. Average actual spacing between plants within a row was 18 and 4 cm for 19- and 76-cm rows, respectively, at a target population of 430,000 seeds/ha, which may have contributed to greater plant-to-plant transfer of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogen in the 76-cm rows.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Pioneer ‘92B71’, Asgrow ‘AG2701’, and Asgrow ‘AG2702’; Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.
Additional index words: Disease severity index, population density, row spacing.
Sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, imazethapyr, quinclorac, propanil, glyphosate, and glufosinate were tested at rates below those recommended by the manufacturers with Pyricularia setariae Niskada under greenhouse conditions for control of green foxtail. At one-tenth of the recommended rate in a 100 L/ha carrier volume, only the sethoxydim–P. setariae combination achieved more effective green foxtail control when compared with the herbicide or pathogen alone. Selected herbicides at one-tenth, one-fourth, and one-half of the recommended rates showed variable interactions with the pathogen on plants with three and five leaves. Propanil (recommended rate 0.99 kg ai/ha) was more synergistic at higher rates, especially on larger plants, for which the combined treatment increased green foxtail mortality from zero in the herbicide alone to 100%. Quinclorac (recommended rate 0.10 kg ai/ha) acted similarly to propanil with slightly lower synergy effects. Sethoxydim (recommended rate 0.15 kg ai/ha) at one-tenth or one-quarter of the rate plus P. setariae often enhanced green foxtail control on larger plants. On smaller plants, the herbicide and pathogen alone were highly efficacious. Compared with tank mixes with P. setariae, propanil, quinclorac, or sethoxydim applied 6 h before the pathogen or earlier generally showed greater efficacy. Delaying a tank mix application for up to 2 h had little negative effect, but longer than 4 h often reduced efficacy. When combining the pathogen at different doses with propanil, quinclorac, or sethoxydim at one-tenth, one-quarter, and one-half of the rate, both fungal dose and herbicide rate affected the efficacy. Coapplying any of the herbicides at the one-quarter rate with the pathogen at the sublethal dose of 2 × 107 spores/ml achieved complete control of green foxtail.
Irrigated field experiments were conducted near Torrington, WY, during the 2001 to 2002 (year 1) and 2002 to 2003 (year 2) winter wheat growing seasons to evaluate cultivar response to different imazamox rates, adjuvants, and application timings. Five cultivars were treated postemergence in the early fall (EF), late fall (LF), or early spring (ES) with imazamox at 54 or 108 g ai/ha, including either nonionic surfactant (NIS) at 0.25% or methylated seed oil (MSO) at 1% (v/v) as adjuvants. A 28% urea ammonium nitrate solution at 1% (v/v) was included with all treatments. Spring injury was more severe in year 1 than year 2. Severe spring injury on ‘AP502 CL’, ‘Above’, ‘IMI-Fidel’, ‘IMI-Jagger’, and ‘IMI-Madsen’ was linked to fall application of 108 g/ha imazamox with MSO. Imazamox applied at 108 g/ha plus MSO applied in the fall consistently injured all cultivars more than the same rate with NIS and 54 g/ha imazamox regardless of adjuvant and timing, although severity of injury in the experiments differed between EF and LF timings in years 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation analysis supports injury reduced reproductive tillers per meter of row and wheat yields and increased the number of seeds per spike in year 1. The reduction of reproductive tillers per meter of row in year 1 was likely the result of severe injury caused by 108 g/ha imazamox applied in the EF coupled with little snow cover to protect against cold winter temperatures. Wheat yield in year 1 was reduced by 108 g/ha imazamox applied in the early fall; however, imazamox applied at 54 g/ha with either adjuvant in EF, LF, or ES were safe. Yield parameters and wheat yields in year 2 were not affected by imazamox rate, adjuvant, timing, or interactions of these factors.
Field violet is a winter or summer annual plant that is a serious weed of canola crops in Europe. It is a weed of increasing concern within reduced tillage fields in central Alberta, where its response to registered herbicides has not been evaluated. Two commercial fields within the Aspen Parkland ecoregion of Alberta were used to evaluate the efficacy of postemergence (POST) herbicides against field violet in conventional, imidazolinone-resistant (IMI-resistant) and glufosinate-resistant canola cultivars, as well as to evaluate the plant's response to various timings and rates of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant canola. Control of field violet was lower in field experiments conducted in 2002 compared with 2003, probably because of abnormally low rainfall in 2002. The POST herbicides evaluated provided inadequate control of field violet in conventional canola. Glufosinate control at 500 g ai/ha was unacceptable unless the crop canopy closed shortly after application. In IMI-resistant canola, thifensulfuron did not significantly reduce plant density and biomass under the extremely dry conditions experienced in 2002, but in 2003, it conferred respective reductions of 79 and 86% relative to nontreated controls. Imazamox plus imazethapyr did not affect plant growth. Field violet was controlled by pre- and postcrop emergence glyphosate at 445 g ae/ha. Postharvest application of glyphosate provided good control throughout the following growing season when spring emergence was minimal. Herbicide activity was also evaluated on two- to four-leaf seedlings in a greenhouse experiment. Dose– response curves reflected the activity observed in field experiments. Strategies for effective field violet control with herbicides are dependent on cultivar selection and the management system, but are improved by timing application to young, actively growing plants.
Abbreviations: ED50, effective herbicide dose necessary to cause 50% reduction in weed dry weight; ED85, effective herbicide dose necessary to cause 85% reduction in weed dry weight; PH, postharvest, IMI-resistant, imidazolinone-resistant; PREPLANT, precrop emergence; POST, postemergence; WAT, weeks after treatment.
Few weed management options are available for juneberry, which has limited the potential for this new crop. Field trials were initiated at three locations in North Dakota to evaluate efficacy and crop safety associated with chemical and physical weed control treatments applied just before or immediately after transplanting. All treatments except norflurazon and trifluralin provided at least 85% control of redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, common purslane, and yellow foxtail for the duration of the trial at Absaraka, ND, during 2001. Stinkgrass weed control 8 wk after treatment (WAT) dropped to unacceptable levels (<85%) with all treatments except azafenidin at 0.5 kg ai/ ha, norflurazon, and oxyfluorfen at 1.1 kg ai/ha at Dawson, ND, during 2001. However, juneberry injury 4 WAT by azafenidin at 0.5 kg/ha, flumioxazin at both locations, or azafenidin at 0.34 kg/ha and oxyfluorfen at 1.1 kg ai/ha at Absaraka, ND, was greater than observed for plants within the physical treatments. Juneberry injury generally decreased with time, yet remained >20% at 8 WAT for azafenidin and flumioxazin at Absaraka, ND, and for all treatments except the mulches at Dawson, ND. Plant injury 8 WAT at Absaraka in 2002 was 10% or less for all treatments and was lower compared with 2001. All physical treatments—azafenidin at 0.34 and 0.5 kg/ha, flumioxazin at 0.29 kg/ha, and oryzalin at 4.5 kg/ha—provided at least 85% control of all weed species at Carrington and Absaraka, ND, during 2002.
Nomenclature: Azafenidin, 2-;ob2,4-dichloro-5-(2-propynyloxy)phenyl;cb-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazolo;ob4,3-a;cbpyridin-3(2H)-one; flumioxazin; oryzalin; oxyfluorfen, 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene; trifluralin; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. #3 CHEAL; common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L. # POROL; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE; stinkgrass, Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) E. Mosher # ERACN; yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. # SETLU; juneberry, Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. ‘Lee 8’, ‘Martin’, ‘Smoky’.
Additional index words: Weed management, mulches, Saskatoon.
Abbreviations: MAT, months after treatment; WAT, weeks after treatment.
A promising approach for the control of parasitic weeds is herbicide seed priming, which consists of soaking crop seeds in a herbicide solution such that the herbicide is later present in the crop seedling to inhibit growth of attaching parasites. This technique is effective where selectivity exists between crop and parasite; for example, varieties of imidazolinone-resistant maize. However, seed priming has not been reported for sorghum or pearl millet, two crops that are greatly affected by purple witchweed. Research was initiated to evaluate herbicides for potential use as seed priming agents in these crops. Auxin-mimic and acetolactate synthase-inhibitor class herbicides were evaluated; specifically, clopyralid, 2,4-DB, dicamba, picloram, and prosulfuron. For sorghum, immersion of seed in 0.5% (w/v) ae 2,4-DB for 5 min 1 d before planting reduced purple witchweed densities to levels 20 to 50% of nontreated controls. However, this concentration was at the threshold of crop toxicity and reduced sorghum yields in some experiments. None of the herbicides tested consistently reduced purple witchweed on pearl millet. This research illustrates both the potential and limitations of adapting seed priming technology for sorghum and pearl millet.
Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] control for at least 1 yr is necessary to establish other forage species in pasture and hay field renovations, or to plant pine (Pinus spp.) in infested fields. Potential herbicides for hybrid Bermudagrass control were evaluated using single, repeat, and multiyear applications. Repeat applications were made 30 d after the first application beginning in mid-August each year. Imazapyr applied once at 0.56 or 1.12 kg/ha controlled hybrid Bermudagrass (cv. ‘Tifton 44’) 88 and 97%, respectively, 52 wk after treatment with no difference between rates observed. Additionally, imazapyr applied for two consecutive years controlled hybrid Bermudagrass 100%. Glyphosate isopropylamine salt and glyphosate trimethylsulfonium salt, applied for 1 yr at rates of 4.2 or 1.7 fb (followed by) 1.7 kg ae/ha and 4.8 or 1.9 fb 1.9 kg ae/ha, respectively, provided between 70 and 78% control at 52 wk after the last treatment (WALT). Hybrid Bermudagrass control from either formulation of glyphosate applied for two consecutive years ranged between 79 and 91% at 52 WALT. Relative to a 1-yr application program, either glyphosate formulation applied for two consecutive years did not significantly improve Bermudagrass control at 52 WALT. The addition of fluazifop-P at 0.42 kg ai/ha or clethodim at 0.2 kg ai/ha to glyphosate formulations did not significantly improve hybrid Bermudagrass control relative to glyphosate applied alone. However, a tank-mix of clethodim plus either formulation of glyphosate applied for two consecutive years generally improved hybrid Bermudagrass control relative to applications in only 1 yr.
Additional index words: Long-term weed control; repeat applications.
Abbreviations: CRP, Conservation Reserve Program; fb, followed by; IPA, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate; MAT, months after treatment; TMS, trimethylsulfonium salt of glyphosate; WALT, weeks after last treatment.
Studies were conducted in New Jersey and Virginia to evaluate the response of ‘Aurora Gold’ hard fescue, which had undergone five cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection for increased glyphosate tolerance, to direct applications of glyphosate. ‘Discovery’ hard fescue, which had not undergone recurrent selection, was also included in the study. Glyphosate treatments were initiated in early/mid-May and applied once, twice, or three times at 4- to 5-wk intervals at rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Aurora Gold was more tolerant to glyphosate than Discovery in all experiments, indicating that recurrent selection was successful in increasing glyphosate tolerance in hard fescue. Single applications of glyphosate at rates ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 kg/ha could be applied to Aurora Gold with minimal injury or stand thinning (<20%), whereas multiple applications of glyphosate could be applied at rates ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 kg/ha. The use of Aurora Gold in areas planted to hard fescue, such as golf course roughs, vineyards, orchards, and landscapes, would allow the integration of direct glyphosate applications into an overall weed management program providing potential economic and environmental benefits.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; hard fescue, Festuca longifolia Thuill. ‘Aurora Gold’, ‘Discovery’.
Concern has been raised that herbicides often used to control perennial ryegrass in warm-season turf could move laterally or “track” and injure neighboring cool-season grasses. Rimsulfuron was applied at 17.5 or 35 g ai/ha to perennial ryegrass in the afternoon. The following morning, while dew was still present, a greens mower was driven through the perennial ryegrass and across the adjacent creeping bentgrass. When evaluated 5, 10, and 25 d after treatment, visible track length and creeping bentgrass injury were greatly reduced by irrigating perennial ryegrass 2 h after treatment or by irrigating both perennial ryegrass and creeping bentgrass prior to simulated mowing. Visible injury of tracked turfgrass persisted for 36 d after treatment when irrigation was not applied and for as few as 5 d when both perennial ryegrass and creeping bentgrass were irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on perennial ryegrass control. Gibberellic acid at 0.12 kg ai/ha and foliar iron at 1.3 kg ai/ha, applied when tracks first appeared, did not improve the recovery of injured creeping bentgrass. Our results suggest that when applying rimsulfuron near susceptible bentgrass, the lowest effective rate should be applied and that the bentgrass should be irrigated at least 2 h after treatment to prevent nontarget injury.
Nomenclature: Rimsulfuron; perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. ‘Pennant II’; creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’.
Medusahead is an aggressive, nonnative, winter annual grass that infests rangelands in the western United States. Its ability to rapidly spread, outcompete native vegetation, and destroy forage potential is a primary concern for landowners and land managers exposed to this weed. Prescribed burns were conducted at a low- and high-litter site in northern Utah prior to conducting experiments to evaluate the effects of fall and spring applications of sulfometuron at 39 or 79 g ai/ha and imazapic at 70 or 140 g ai/ha on medusahead and associated perennial grasses, annual and perennial forbs, and bare ground cover. Large differences in pretreatment medusahead litter between the sites resulted in less surface area burning at the low-litter site (∼10%) compared to the high-litter site (∼80%). Higher herbicide rates significantly increased medusahead control and bare ground cover; however, this rate affect largely depended on site, season, and herbicide. The low- and high-litter sites did not differ significantly in perennial grass cover 2 yr after burning. Annual forb cover was greater, but perennial forb cover was lower at the low-litter site compared to the high-litter site. Several treatment combinations were identified as having the potential to maintain greater than 50% medusahead control in the second year after herbicide applications. These results collectively demonstrate that potential exists to successfully control medusahead and produce a window of opportunity to reintroduce a greater abundance of perennial species back into the plant community via seeding.
Isoxaflutole, a preemergence herbicide for use in corn, causes bleaching of plant tissue and plant death at low rates. A concern regarding widespread use of isoxaflutole is the unintentional exposure of high-value, minor hectareage crops that may be sensitive. Unintentional exposure could occur because of carryover from a previous application, spray drift, or contamination of irrigation water. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for injury to nine minor hectareage Michigan crops. Crops evaluated were: adzuki bean, alfalfa, carrot, cucumber, dry bean (navy and black beans), onion, sugar beet, and tomato. Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate injury from low rates of isoxaflutole applied to soil to simulate carryover as well as low concentrations of isoxaflutole in 2.54 cm of irrigation water applied over the course of 1 h to 15-cm-tall plants. Isoxaflutole rates and concentrations that cause 20% injury (I20) were calculated using Seefeldt's log-logistic dose–response model. Regardless of application type, onion was always the least sensitive plant to isoxaflutole (I20 = 37 g/ha applied to soil and 194 μg/L in irrigation water), whereas navy bean and black bean were the most sensitive (I20 = 9 g/ha applied to soil and 5 μg/ L in irrigation water). The remaining plants exhibited intermediate sensitivity. All of the rates that resulted in injury were substantially less than the rates used for weed control in corn. Carryover from isoxaflutole applications in corn production may require plant back restrictions for certain sensitive crops.
Because of a previously reported antagonism of clethodim activity by other herbicides, greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine goosegrass control with clethodim and glufosinate postemergence alone, in tank mixtures, and as sequential treatments. Herbicide treatments consisted of glufosinate at 0, 290, or 410 g ai/ha and clethodim at 0, 105, or 140 g ai/ha, each applied alone, in all possible combinations of the above application rates, or sequentially. Glufosinate at either rate alone controlled goosegrass at the two- to four-leaf growth stage <44%, and control was less for goosegrass at the one- to two- and four- to six-tiller growth stages. Clethodim controlled two- to four-leaf and one- to two-tiller goosegrass 91 and 99% at application rates of 105 and 140 g/ha, respectively, and controlled four- to six-tiller goosegrass 68 and 83% at application rates of 105 and 140 g ai/ha, respectively. All tank mixtures of glufosinate with clethodim reduced goosegrass control at least 52 percentage points when compared to the control with clethodim alone. Glufosinate at 290 or 410 g/ha when applied sequentially 7 or 14 d prior to clethodim reduced goosegrass control at least 50 percentage points compared to the control obtained with clethodim applied alone. Clethodim at rates of 105 or 140 g/ha when applied 7 or 14 d prior to glufosinate controlled goosegrass equivalent to the control obtained with each respective rate of clethodim applied alone at the two- to four-leaf and one- to two-tiller growth stage. Clethodim should be applied to goosegrass no larger than at the one- to two-tiller growth stage at least 7 d prior to glufosinate application or 14 d after a glufosinate application for effective goosegrass control.
Limited information exists on the tolerance of processing tomato to postemergence (POST) application of thifensulfuron-methyl. The tolerance of 13 processing tomato varieties, ‘CC337’, ‘H9144’, ‘H9314’, ‘H9478’, ‘H9492’, ‘H9553’, ‘H9909’, ‘N1069’, ‘N1082’, ‘N1480E’, ‘N1480L’, ‘N1522’, and ‘PETO696’, to POST applications of thifensulfuron-methyl at the maximum use rate (6 g ai/ha) and twice the maximum use rate (12 g/ha) for soybean was evaluated at two Ontario locations in 2001 and 2002. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), thifensulfuron applied POST caused 0.2 to 1% visible injury to CC337, H9144, N1082, N1522, and PETO696 at the high rate. H9553, H9909, N1069, and N1480E were the most sensitive to POST thifensulfuron-methyl, with visible injury ranging from 1 to 6% at the high rate. There was no visible injury to H9314, H9478, H9492, or N1480L at either application rate of thifensulfuron-methyl. By 28 DAT, no visible injury was noted to any variety, except for H9909, N1069, and N1480L, which showed minimal (<2%) visible injury. There were no adverse effects on shoot dry weight and marketable yield for any variety at either rate. Although thifensulfuron-methyl applied POST caused minimal and transient injury to the varieties tested, more tolerance trials with other fresh and processing tomato varieties are required to confirm these initial results.
The transfer of herbicide resistance genes from crops to related species is one of the greatest risks of growing herbicide-resistant crops. The recent introductions of imidazolinone-resistant wheat in the Great Plains and Pacific Northwest regions of the United States and research on transgenic glyphosate-resistant wheat have raised concerns about the transfer of herbicide resistance from wheat to jointed goatgrass via introgressive hybridization. Field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2003 at three locations in Washington and Idaho to determine the frequency and distance that imidazolinone-resistant wheat can pollinate jointed goatgrass and produce resistant F1 hybrids. Each experiment was designed as a Nelder wheel with 16 equally spaced rays extending away from a central pollen source of ‘Fidel-FS4’ imidazolinone-resistant wheat. Each ray was 46 m long and contained three rows of jointed goatgrass. Spikelets were collected at maturity at 1.8-m intervals along each ray and subjected to an imazamox screening test. The majority of all jointed goatgrass seeds tested were not resistant to imazamox; however, 5 and 15 resistant hybrids were found at the Pullman, WA, and Lewiston, ID, locations, respectively. The resistant plants were identified at a maximum distance of 40.2 m from the pollen source. The overall frequency of imazamox-resistant hybrids was similar to the predicted frequency of naturally occurring acetolactate synthase resistance in weeds; however, traits with a lower frequency of spontaneous mutations may have a relatively greater risk for gene escape via introgressive hybridization.
Field studies were conducted at Aberdeen, ID; Ontario, OR; and Paterson, WA, to evaluate potato tolerance to flumioxazin and sulfentrazone. In ‘Russet Burbank’ tolerance trials conducted in 2000 at ID, OR, and WA, sulfentrazone applied preemergence (PRE) at rates ranging from 105 to 280 g ai/ha caused significant injury consisting of stunting, leaf discoloration-blackening, and/or leaf malformation-crinkling at 4 wk after treatment (WAT). By 12 WAT, injury was ≤5%. At 4 WAT, flumioxazin applied PRE at 105 and 140 g ai/ha resulted in injury, whereas 53 g ai/ha did not cause significant injury. At 12 WAT, no visual injury was present at the ID site, whereas flumioxazin at 140 g/ha was still causing injury in WA. Regardless of initial injury, Russet Burbank tuber yields at ID, OR, and WA were not reduced as a result of any flumioxazin or sulfentrazone treatment compared with the nontreated controls. In potato variety tolerance trials conducted at ID in 2000 and at WA in 2002 with Russet Burbank, ‘Ranger Russet’, ‘Russet Norkotah’, and ‘Shepody’ and at ID in 2002 with those varieties plus ‘Alturas’ and ‘Bannock Russet’, early season injury caused by flumioxazin or sulfentrazone applied PRE at rates as high as 210 g ai/ha or 280 g/ha, respectively, occurred, but variety tuber yields were not reduced compared with nontreated control yields. In contrast, at ID in 2001, early injury caused by flumioxazin or sulfentrazone applied PRE at 105 or 210 g/ha translated to tuber yield reductions of all six varieties tested compared with the nontreated controls. At WA in 2001, Ranger Russet tuber yields were reduced by PRE applications of flumioxazin at 53 to 140 g/ha or sulfentrazone at 105 to 280 g/ha, and Shepody total tuber yields were reduced by all rates of PRE-applied sulfentrazone. Russet Burbank and Russet Norkotah tuber yields were unaffected by either herbicide. Unusual heat stress occurring early in the 2001 growing season at both locations may have compounded the effects of herbicide injury and, consequently, tuber yields were reduced in 2001, whereas injury occurring in 2000 or 2002 during relatively normal growing conditions did not translate to yield reductions.
A study was conducted at a 64-ha site in western Canada to determine how preventing seed shed from herbicide-resistant wild oat affects patch expansion over a 6-yr period. Seed shed was prevented in two patches and allowed to occur in two patches (nontreated controls). Annual patch expansion was determined by seed bank sampling and mapping. Crop management practices were performed by the grower. Area of treated patches increased by 35% over the 6-yr period, whereas nontreated patches increased by 330%. Patch expansion was attributed mainly to natural seed dispersal (nontreated) or seed movement by equipment at time of seeding (nontreated and treated). Extensive seed shed from plants in nontreated patches before harvest or control of resistant plants by alternative herbicides minimized seed movement by the combine harvester. Although both treated and nontreated patches were relatively stable over time in this cropping system, preventing seed production and shed in herbicide-resistant wild oat patches can markedly slow the rate of patch expansion.
Studies were conducted at eight sites during a 3-yr period in Oklahoma and Arkansas to determine the effectiveness and safety of preemergence applications of halosulfuron both alone and in tank mixtures with bensulide, clomazone, ethalfluralin, and naptalam. Ethalfluralin, naptalam plus bensulide, and sulfentrazone also were applied alone. Although halosulfuron caused up to 20% seedling stunting, watermelon plants recovered by 5 to 7 wk after planting, and yield was similar to that of hand-weeded plots. Halosulfuron treatments controlled hophornbeam copperleaf, Palmer amaranth, carpetweed, and cutleaf groundcherry 80 to 100%. Control of goosegrass was at least 97% with clomazone plus ethalfluralin plus halosulfuron. Injury to watermelon treated with sulfentrazone ranged from 76 to 98% at 2 to 4 wk after treatment. This was reflected by yields that were lower than any other herbicide treatment in the studies.
Field studies were conducted during the years 2000 to 2003 at Stoneville, MS, to determine the efficacy of fall deep tillage and glyphosate applications on redvine and trumpetcreeper populations and soybean yield in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Fall deep (≈45 cm) tillage for 1, 2, and 3 yr reduced redvine density by 95, 88, and 97%, respectively, compared with shallow (≈15 cm) tillage, but deep tillage did not reduce trumpetcreeper density. Glyphosate applied preplant reduced trumpetcreeper density (25 to 44%), but not redvine density, compared to that with no glyphosate. Glyphosate early postemergence (EPOST) either alone (45 to 67%) or followed by (fb) late postemergence (LPOST; 59 to 83%) reduced density of trumpetcreeper, but not of redvine, compared to that with no herbicide. However, dry biomass of both vines was reduced with glyphosate EPOST or LPOST compared to that with no herbicide. Soybean yields were higher with deep tillage vs. shallow tillage, glyphosate preplant application vs. no glyphosate, and glyphosate EPOST either alone or fb LPOST vs. no herbicide. Redvine did not reestablish in 2003, which was after skipping fall deep tillage for 1 yr following three consecutive years of deep tillage compared with shallow tillage. It is possible to manage redvine infestations with fall deep tillage and trumpetcreeper infestations with glyphosate preplant and postemergence (POST) in-crop applications. Integration of fall deep tillage and glyphosate POST applications could be an effective strategy to manage combined infestations of these vines in glyphosate-resistant soybean.
Coapplication of herbicides and insecticides affords growers an opportunity to control multiple pests with one application, given that efficacy is not compromised. Glufosinate was applied at 470 g ai/ha both alone and in combination with the insecticides acephate, acetamiprid, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, or thiamethoxam to determine coapplication effects on control of some of the more common and/or troublesome broadleaf weeds infesting cotton. Hemp sesbania, pitted morningglory, prickly sida, redroot pigweed, and sicklepod were treated at the three- to four- or the seven- to eight-leaf growth stage. When applied at the earlier application timing, glufosinate applied alone provided complete control at 14 d after treatment, and control was unaffected by coapplication with insecticides. When glufosinate application was delayed to the later application timing, visual weed control was unaffected by insecticide coapplication. Fresh-weight reduction from the herbicide applied to larger weeds was negatively impacted by addition of the insecticides dicrotophos and imidacloprid with respect to redroot pigweed and prickly sida, but only in one of two experiments. In most cases, delaying application of glufosinate to larger weeds resulted in reduced control compared to that from a three- to four-leaf application, with the extent of reduction varying by species. Results indicate that when applied according to the herbicide label (three- to four-leaf stage), glufosinate/ insecticide coapplications offer producers the ability to integrate pest management strategies and to limit application costs without sacrificing control of the broadleaf weeds evaluated.
Field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to determine the tolerance of direct-seeded leafy turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, and collard to selected preemergence and postemergence herbicides and to determine the efficacy of these herbicides against weeds that are common to the southeastern coastal plains of the United States. Pendimethalin applied preemergence controlled large crabgrass, goosegrass, carpetweed, and common purslane, but it injured turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, and collard. Dimethenamid at 0.31 and 0.63 kg ai/ha controlled large crabgrass and goosegrass but did not control hairy nightshade or common purslane at the lower rate. In 2003, dimethenamid at 0.63 kg/ha injured mustard greens, kale, and collard more than 40%. S-metolachlor applied preemergence at 0.45 kg ai/ha controlled large crabgrass, goosegrass, hairy nightshade, and common purslane while causing little or no injury to turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, and collard. Clopyralid at 0.10 kg ai/ha controlled common lambsquarters 76 to 95% and hairy nightshade 93% but did not control carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, and goosegrass. Turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, and collard generally were tolerant of clopyralid, but mustard was injured 29% in 2003. Phenmedipham alone or in combination with desmedipham injured mustard greens 54 to 82% in 2003 and failed to control weeds. Of the herbicides evaluated, S-metolachlor provides the best potential to improve weed control in direct-seeded leafy greens in the southeastern United States.
Nomenclature: Clopyralid; desmedipham; dimethenamid; pendimethalin; phenmedipham; S-metolachlor; carpetweed, Mollugo verticillata L. #3 MOLVE; collard, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC ‘Top Bunch’; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. # CHEAL; common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L. # POROL; goosegrass, Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. # ELEIN; hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtner # SOLSA; kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala ‘Blue Knight’; large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA; leafy turnip greens, Brassica rapa L. Alamo'; mustard greens, Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & J. M. Coulter var. crispifolia L. H. Bailey ‘Southern Curled Giant’.
Additional index words: Herbicide tolerance, weed control.
Abbreviations: WAP, weeks after planting; WAT, weeks after treatment.
The increased use of conservation tillage in cotton production requires that information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control. Field experiments were conducted from fall 1994 through fall 1997 in Alabama to evaluate three winter cereal cover crops in a high-residue, conservation-tillage, nontransgenic cotton production system. Black oat, rye, and wheat were evaluated for their weed-suppressive characteristics compared to a winter fallow system. Three herbicide systems were used: no herbicide, preemergence (PRE) herbicides alone, and PRE plus postemergence (POST) herbicides. The PRE system consisted of pendimethalin at 1.12 kg ai/ha plus fluometuron at 1.7 kg ai/ha. The PRE plus POST system contained an additional application of fluometuron at 1.12 kg/ha plus DSMA at 1.7 kg ai/ha early POST directed (PDS) and lactofen at 0.2 kg ai/ha plus cyanazine at 0.84 kg ai/ha late PDS. No cover crop was effective in controlling weeds without a herbicide. However, when black oat or rye was used with PRE herbicides, weed control was similar to the PRE plus POST system. Rye and black oat provided more effective weed control than wheat in conservation-tillage cotton. The winter fallow, PRE plus POST input system yielded significantly less cotton in 2 of 3 yr compared to systems that included a winter cover crop. Use of black oat or rye cover crops has the potential to increase cotton productivity and reduce herbicide inputs for nontransgenic cotton grown in the Southeast.
Nomenclature: Black oat, Avena strigosa Schreb. ‘SoilSaver’; rye, Secale cereale L. ‘Elbon’; wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Pioneer P26 J61’; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘Deltapine DP 5690’, ‘Deltapine NuCotn 35B’.
Additional index words: Allelopathy, cover crops.
Abbreviations: DAP, days after planting; PDS, postemergence-directed spray; POST, postemergence; PRE, preemergence.
The degree of resistance to linuron of a common ragweed biotype was investigated. Suspected linuron-resistant plants collected from a carrot field near Sherrington, Québec, were subjected to increasing rates of linuron under glasshouse conditions. Resistance to linuron of the common ragweed biotype was suspected because 33% of plants survived to reproduction after they were sprayed at a rate of 4.5 kg ai/ha, two times the dose rate recommended for linuron in carrots, and also because 3% of plants survived to reproduction after they were sprayed at a rate of 22.5 kg ai/ ha, 10 times the recommended dose. Susceptible plants collected from a field with no prior history of linuron use were all killed when sprayed at the lowest dose rate recommended, 1.125 kg ai/ha. The herbicide-resistance ratio was 29.0 for linuron, and for cross-resistance to atrazine, the ratio was 1.3, indicating that these plants exhibit greater resistance to linuron than to atrazine.
Nomenclature: Linuron; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. #3 AMBEL; carrot, Daucus carota L.
Additional index words: Urea herbicides, cross-resistance, atrazine.
Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002 to evaluate the response of imidazolinone-resistant (IR) corn and selected weeds to trifloxysulfuron applied postemergence (POST). Treatments included a nontreated control and S-metolachlor applied preemergence at 1,075 g ai/ha followed by (fb) trifloxysulfuron POST at 0, 3.8, 7.5, 11.2, and 15 g ai/ha. IR corn visible injury was less than 6% from field applications of trifloxysulfuron. Visual symptoms were transient, and IR corn yield was not affected by trifloxysulfuron. Common ragweed, common lambsquarters, annual grass species (giant foxtail and large crabgrass), and carpetweed were controlled at least 95% by S-metolachlor fb trifloxysulfuron applications. Morningglory species (ivyleaf morningglory, pitted morningglory, and tall morningglory) were controlled at least 97% in 2000 and greater than 77% in 2001 from S-metolachlor fb trifloxysulfuron. Jimsonweed was not adequately controlled. S-metolachlor alone controlled annual grass species 90% but did not control the broadleaf weeds that were present. Wheat was planted following IR corn harvest, and non-IR corn was planted the following spring. No visible response was observed to rotational wheat or non-IR corn crops. Rotational non-IR corn yield was not affected by trifloxysulfuron and was not different from the yield of corn treated with S-metolachlor alone. In greenhouse studies, IR corn was injured 10% at 10 d after treatment with 380 g/ha trifloxysulfuron POST, but recovery was rapid. Based upon results, trifloxysulfuron may be used as an herbicide in IR corn, and rotational wheat and non-IR corn may be planted at normal intervals after cotton harvest.
Nomenclature: Trifloxysulfuron; S-metolachlor; carpetweed, Mollugo verticillata (L.) #3 MOLVE; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. # CHEAL; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L # AMBEL; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. # SETFA; ivyleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. IPOHE; jimsonweed, Datura stramonium L. # DATST; large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA; pitted morningglory, I. lacunosa L. # IPOLA; tall morningglory, I. purpurea (L.) Roth # IPOPU; corn, Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer 32Z18 IR’, ‘Pioneer 33G26’; wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Pocahontas’.
Additional index words: Carryover, sulfonylurea.
Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199); DAT, days after postemergence treatment; fb, followed by; IR, imidazolinone-resistant; POST, postemergence; PRE, preemergence; WAP, weeks after planting.
Field studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of using imazethapyr applied preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) for weed control in sericea lespedeza. In the POST experiment, imazethapyr was applied at 0, 71, 142, and 213 g ai/ha to mature, recently mowed stands of sericea lespedeza. Regardless of rate, yellow nutsedge and cutleaf groundcherry control at 2 mo after treatment, as determined by weed foliage biomass relative to the nontreated plants, was 90 and 80%, respectively. Sericea lespedeza forage yield (weeds removed) was not reduced by POST-applied imazethapyr even at 213 g/ha. The same imazethapyr rates were used with newly seeded sericea lespedeza in the PRE-applied experiment. Imazethapyr at 71 g/ha provided at least 78% control of large crabgrass, stinkgrass, yellow nutsedge, sicklepod, and cutleaf groundcherry as well as maximum sericea lespedeza performance, as indicated by seedling height, weight, and stand count. Results indicated that imazethapyr can be used for either PRE- or POST-applied weed control in sericea lespedeza. However, margin of safety is greater with imazethapyr applied POST to mature stands than with PRE applications to germinating seeds.
Nomenclature: Imazethapyr; cutleaf groundcherry, Physalis angulata L. #3 PHYAN; large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA; sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don.; sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barnaby # CASOB; stinkgrass, Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) E. Mosher # ERACN; yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L. # CYPES.
Additional index words: Forage, legume.
Abbreviations: POST, postemergence; PRE, preemergence.
An experiment was conducted at four locations in North Carolina in 1996 and 1997 to evaluate weed control and cotton response in conventional-tillage bromoxynil-resistant cotton. Weed management systems evaluated included a factorial arrangement of bromoxynil postemergence (POST) at 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.56 kg ai/ha in mixture with pyrithiobac POST at 0, 0.018, 0.032, or 0.072 kg ai/ha. Additional treatments evaluated included trifluralin preplant-incorporated (PPI) plus fluometuron preemergence (PRE). All systems received a postemergence-directed (PDS) treatment of fluometuron plus MSMA. Bromoxynil at 0.42 kg/ha POST followed by (fb) fluometuron plus MSMA PDS controlled common lambsquarters, common ragweed, eclipta, prickly sida, redroot pigweed, spurred anoda; and entireleaf, ivyleaf, pitted, and tall morningglory at least 93%, whereas smooth pigweed and volunteer peanut were controlled 73 and 86%, respectively. Pyrithiobac at 0.036 kg/ha POST fb fluometuron plus MSMA PDS controlled eclipta, common ragweed, prickly sida, redroot, and smooth pigweed, and spurred anoda at least 94%. Volunteer peanut was controlled 84% by pyrithiobac at 0.032 kg/ha, whereas pitted, ivyleaf, and entireleaf morningglory were controlled by 63, 78, and 83%, respectively. Pyrithiobac at 0.072 kg/ha fb fluometuron plus MSMA PDS controlled common lambsquarters 48%. Cotton yield with bromoxynil plus pyrithiobac POST mixtures were equivalent to trifluralin PPI plus fluometuron PRE at three locations and better at the fourth location. Bromoxynil-resistant cotton ‘47’ and ‘57’ had excellent tolerance to all POST herbicide treatments.
Nomenclature: Bromoxynil; fluometuron; MSMA; pyrithiobac; trifluralin; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. #3 CHEAL; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. # AMBEL; eclipta, Eclipta prostrata L. # ECLAL; entireleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederaceae var. integriuscula Gray # IPOHG; ivyleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. IPOHE; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. # IPOLA; peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.; prickly sida, Sida spinosa L. # SIDSP; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE; smooth pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L. # AMACH; spurred anoda, Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. # ANVCR; tall morningglory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. # PHBPU; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., ‘BXN 47’, ‘BXN 57’.
Additional index words: Cotton yield, crop tolerance, cyanazine, herbicide-resistant crops.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; fb, followed by; PDS, postemergence directed; POST, postemergence; PPI, preplant incorporated; PRE, preemergence.
Coapplication of herbicides and insecticides affords growers an opportunity to control multiple pests with one application given that efficacy is not compromised. Trifloxysulfuron was applied at 5.3 g ai/ha both alone and in combination with the insecticides acephate (370 g ai/ha), oxamyl (370 g ai/ha), lambda-cyhalothrin (34 g ai/ha), acetamiprid (45 g ai/ha), thiamethoxam (45 g ai/ha), endosulfan (379 g ai/ha), indoxacarb (123 g ai/ha), emamectin benzoate (11 g ai/ha), methoxyfenozide (67 g ai/ha), spinosad (75 g ai/ha), and pyridalyl (112 g ai/ha) to determine the effects of coapplication on control of some of the more common and/or troublesome broadleaf weeds infesting cotton. In addition, the insecticides acephate, oxamyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam, and endosulfan, at the rates listed above, were applied either alone or in combination with trifloxysulfuron at 7.9 g/ha to assess the effects of coapplication on thrips control. Control of hemp sesbania (insecticides oxamyl and lambda-cyhalothrin), sicklepod (insecticides methoxyfenozide and pyridalyl), redroot pigweed (insecticides thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and pyridalyl), and smooth pigweed, Palmer amaranth, and common lambsquarters (all insecticides) with trifloxysulfuron may be reduced when coapplied with the indicated insecticides for each species. Control of pitted, tall, ivyleaf, and entireleaf morningglory with trifloxysulfuron was not affected by the insecticides evaluated. Coapplication of trifloxysulfuron with the insecticides evaluated also resulted in no negative effects on thrips control.
Nomenclature: Acephate; acetamiprid; emamectin benzoate; endosulfan; indoxacarb; lambda-cyhalothrin; methoxyfenozide; pyridalyl; spinosad; thiamethoxam; trifloxysulfuron; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. #3 CHEAL; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘DP448B’; entireleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula Gray # IPOHG; hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rydb. ex A. W. Hill # SEBEX; ivyleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. # IPOHE; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmerii L. # AMAPA; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. # IPOLA; prickly sida, Sida spinosa L. # SIDSP; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE; sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barnaby # CASOB; smooth pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L. # AMACH; tall morningglory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth # PHPBU; thrips, Frankliniella spp.
Additional index words: Herbicide–insecticide combinations, pesticide compatibility.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; POST, postemergence.