Studies were conducted in the summer and fall of 2001 in North Brunswick, NJ, and Marion County, Oregon, to evaluate the response of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible creeping bentgrass hybrids, colonial bentgrass, redtop, and dryland bentgrass grown as individual plants to postemergence (POST) herbicides. Glyphosate at 1.7 kg ae/ha, glufosinate at 1.7 kg ai/ha, fluazifop-P at 0.3 and 0.4 kg ai/ha, clethodim at 0.3 kg ai/ha, sethoxydim at 0.5 kg ai/ha, and a combination of glyphosate and fluazifop-P were applied 6 wk after planting. Glyphosate provided almost complete control of all susceptible bentgrass species at 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Glufosinate provided 95% or greater control of all bentgrass species at 4 WAT, but regrowth was observed on all species in the summer experiment in Oregon. Fluazifop-P, clethodim, and sethoxydim provided slower control of bentgrass species, which ranged from 38 to 94% at 4 WAT, depending on species, herbicide, and experimental location. By 8 WAT, fluazifop-P at 0.4 kg/ha applied alone or in combination with glyphosate showed the highest levels of control (>90%) across all bentgrass species. Studies were also conducted in 2002 in the spring and summer in North Carolina to evaluate the response of a mature stand of glyphosate-susceptible ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass to POST herbicides. Two applications of glyphosate at 1.7 kg/ha were required to achieve 98% bentgrass control at 8 WAT. Fluazifop-P at 0.4 kg/ha, clethodim at 0.3 kg/ha, and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg/ha exhibited herbicidal activity, but two applications were required to reach (>82%) control of bentgrass at 8 WAT. Two sequential applications of clethodim or the combination of glyphosate and fluazifop-P provided 98% control of bentgrass at 8 WAT. Of the other herbicide treatments evaluated, only atrazine and sulfosulfuron provided (>80%) control at 8 WAT. The results of these studies demonstrate that fluazifop-P, clethodim, and sethoxydim have substantial herbicide activity on bentgrass species and may be viable alternatives to glyphosate for control of glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass and related bentgrass species in areas where they are not wanted. Glufosinate, atrazine, and sulfosulfuron also exhibited substantial herbicidal activity on bentgrass, and further research with these herbicides is warranted.
Nomenclature: Atrazine; clethodim; glufosinate; glyphosate; fluazifop-P; sethoxydim; sulfometuron; sulfosulfuron; colonial bentgrass, Agrostis tenuis Sibth. #3 AGSTE ‘SR 7100’; creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L. # AGSST ‘Backspin’, ‘Crenshaw’, ‘Penn A-4’, ‘Penncross’, ‘RR368’, ‘RS368’; dryland bentgrass, Agrostis castellana Boiss. and Reut. # AGSCT ‘Trust’; redtop, Agrostis gigantea Roth # AGSGI ‘Streaker’.
Additional index words: Glyphosate resistance, imazaquin, isoxaflutole, metribuzin, MSMA, rimsulfuron.
Abbreviations: ACCase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; EPSP, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase; WAT, weeks after treatment.