Irrigated field experiments were conducted near Torrington, WY, during the 2001 to 2002 (year 1) and 2002 to 2003 (year 2) winter wheat growing seasons to evaluate cultivar response to different imazamox rates, adjuvants, and application timings. Five cultivars were treated postemergence in the early fall (EF), late fall (LF), or early spring (ES) with imazamox at 54 or 108 g ai/ha, including either nonionic surfactant (NIS) at 0.25% or methylated seed oil (MSO) at 1% (v/v) as adjuvants. A 28% urea ammonium nitrate solution at 1% (v/v) was included with all treatments. Spring injury was more severe in year 1 than year 2. Severe spring injury on ‘AP502 CL’, ‘Above’, ‘IMI-Fidel’, ‘IMI-Jagger’, and ‘IMI-Madsen’ was linked to fall application of 108 g/ha imazamox with MSO. Imazamox applied at 108 g/ha plus MSO applied in the fall consistently injured all cultivars more than the same rate with NIS and 54 g/ha imazamox regardless of adjuvant and timing, although severity of injury in the experiments differed between EF and LF timings in years 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation analysis supports injury reduced reproductive tillers per meter of row and wheat yields and increased the number of seeds per spike in year 1. The reduction of reproductive tillers per meter of row in year 1 was likely the result of severe injury caused by 108 g/ha imazamox applied in the EF coupled with little snow cover to protect against cold winter temperatures. Wheat yield in year 1 was reduced by 108 g/ha imazamox applied in the early fall; however, imazamox applied at 54 g/ha with either adjuvant in EF, LF, or ES were safe. Yield parameters and wheat yields in year 2 were not affected by imazamox rate, adjuvant, timing, or interactions of these factors.
Nomenclature: Imazamox, 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-(methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Above’, ‘AP502 CL’, ‘IMI-Fidel’, ‘IMI-Jagger’, ‘IMI-Madsen’.
Additional index words: Clearfield winter wheat.
Abbreviations: AHAS, acetohydroxyacid synthase; ALS, acetolactate synthase; EF, early fall; ES, early spring; IMI, imidazolinone; LF, late fall; MSO, methylated seed oil; NIS, nonionic surfactant; RTMRs, reproductive tillers per meter of row; TKW, thousand kernel weight.