Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] control for at least 1 yr is necessary to establish other forage species in pasture and hay field renovations, or to plant pine (Pinus spp.) in infested fields. Potential herbicides for hybrid Bermudagrass control were evaluated using single, repeat, and multiyear applications. Repeat applications were made 30 d after the first application beginning in mid-August each year. Imazapyr applied once at 0.56 or 1.12 kg/ha controlled hybrid Bermudagrass (cv. ‘Tifton 44’) 88 and 97%, respectively, 52 wk after treatment with no difference between rates observed. Additionally, imazapyr applied for two consecutive years controlled hybrid Bermudagrass 100%. Glyphosate isopropylamine salt and glyphosate trimethylsulfonium salt, applied for 1 yr at rates of 4.2 or 1.7 fb (followed by) 1.7 kg ae/ha and 4.8 or 1.9 fb 1.9 kg ae/ha, respectively, provided between 70 and 78% control at 52 wk after the last treatment (WALT). Hybrid Bermudagrass control from either formulation of glyphosate applied for two consecutive years ranged between 79 and 91% at 52 WALT. Relative to a 1-yr application program, either glyphosate formulation applied for two consecutive years did not significantly improve Bermudagrass control at 52 WALT. The addition of fluazifop-P at 0.42 kg ai/ha or clethodim at 0.2 kg ai/ha to glyphosate formulations did not significantly improve hybrid Bermudagrass control relative to glyphosate applied alone. However, a tank-mix of clethodim plus either formulation of glyphosate applied for two consecutive years generally improved hybrid Bermudagrass control relative to applications in only 1 yr.
Nomenclature: Clethodim; fluazifop-P; glyphosate; imazapyr; sethoxydim; hybrid Bermudagrass, Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy × Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. ‘Tifton 44’ #3 CYNDA.
Additional index words: Long-term weed control; repeat applications.
Abbreviations: CRP, Conservation Reserve Program; fb, followed by; IPA, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate; MAT, months after treatment; TMS, trimethylsulfonium salt of glyphosate; WALT, weeks after last treatment.