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1 April 2006 Turf Tolerance and Virginia Buttonweed (Diodia virginiana) Control with Fluroxypyr as Influenced by the Synergist Diflufenzopyr
HANWEN NI, GLENN WEHTJE, ROBERT H. WALKER, JASON L. BELCHER, EUGENE K. BLYTHE
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Abstract

Virginia buttonweed control in warm-season turfgrass species requires high application rates and/or repeated applications of herbicides (or both) with an auxin-type mode of action. These treatments often lead to unacceptable turfgrass injury. Diflufenzopyr functions as a synergist with auxin-type herbicides, and it has been suggested that it may do the same when combined with pyridine herbicides such as fluroxypyr. The objective of this field and laboratory research was to determine whether Virginia buttonweed control could be improved with admixtures of fluroxypyr and diflufenzopyr without unacceptable turf injury. Treatments consisted of fluroxypyr applied alone at 140 and 280 g ae/ha, diflufenzopyr alone at 70 and 140 g/ha, and all possible two-way admixtures. Treatments were applied to a hybrid bluegrass ‘Thermal blue’ infested with Virginia buttonweed. Sod of centipedegrass ‘common’, hybrid bermudagrass ‘Tifway’, hybrid zoysiagrass ‘Emerald’, and St. Augustinegrass ‘Raleigh’, which had been previously established in pots, were treated simultaneously and returned to a greenhouse. Fluroxypyr plus diflufenzopyr at 280 and 70 g/ha, respectively, controlled Virginia buttonweed nearly 40% more than fluroxypyr alone. Turfgrass injury was species-dependent, and was generally either equivalent to or less than that obtained with fluroxypyr alone. Radiotracer studies established that, depending upon the turfgrass species, fluroxypyr absorption was either not influenced or reduced by the addition of diflufenzopyr. Neither root nor foliar absorption of fluroxypyr by Virginia buttonweed was influenced by diflufenzopyr. Translocation of foliar-absorbed fluroxypyr was reduced, but translocation of root-absorbed fluroxypyr was increased by diflufenzopyr. The diflufenzopyr-induced synergism may indicate that a significant portion of the applied fluroxypyr was absorbed by roots or by other subsoil tissues, or both.

Nomenclature: Diflufenzopyr 2-(1-[([3,5-difluorophenylamino]carbonyl)-hydrazono]ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid; fluroxypyr; Virginia buttonweed, Diodia virginiana L. #3 DIQVI; hybrid bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon Burtt-Davey X C. transvaalensis L. Pers. ‘Tifway’; centipedegrass, Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack. ‘Common’; hybrid zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica Steud. X Z. tenuifolia Willd. Ex Trin ‘Emerald’; St. Augustinegrass, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. ‘Raleigh’; hybrid bluegrass, Poa pratensis X P. arachnifera Torr. ‘Thermal Blue’.

Additional index words: Auxin herbicides, 14C-fluroxypyr, herbicide translocation, herbicide synergist, pyridine herbicide, warm-season turfgrass.

Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment; LSS, liquid scintillation spectrometry; WAT, weeks after treatment.

HANWEN NI, GLENN WEHTJE, ROBERT H. WALKER, JASON L. BELCHER, and EUGENE K. BLYTHE "Turf Tolerance and Virginia Buttonweed (Diodia virginiana) Control with Fluroxypyr as Influenced by the Synergist Diflufenzopyr," Weed Technology 20(2), 511-519, (1 April 2006). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-03-268R3.1
Published: 1 April 2006
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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