Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of depth and duration of burial on seasonal germination, primary and secondary dormancy, viability, and seedling emergence of ivyleaf speedwell (Veronica hederifolia L.) seeds. The seeds were buried at 0, 5, 10, or 20 cm and retrieved from the field at monthly intervals. The exhumed seeds were germinated at 5 C. In the second experiment, seeds were stored in the laboratory after harvest and tested for germination at monthly intervals. In each experiment, nongerminated seeds were treated with triphenyltetrazolium chloride at monthly intervals to test their viability. The effects of stratification and burial depth on seedling emergence were observed for 1 yr. The seeds exhumed from the soil were dormant at the beginning of the experiment and exhibited dormancy/nondormancy/conditional dormancy cycling throughout the experiment. Depth of burial and time affected seed germination. Seeds retrieved from the soil surface germinated well initially, but germination decreased as depth of burial increased. In the dry storage experiment, seeds had a high level of primary dormancy, and viability decreased over time. Seedling emergence decreased when depth of burial increased. Seedlings emerged nonuniformly throughout the year and demonstrated typical winter annual characteristics.
Nomenclature: Veronica hederifolia, Ivyleaf speedwell, #3 VERHE
Additional index words: Primary/secondary dormancy, weed management, wheat, germination ecology.
Abbreviations: TTC, triphenyltetrazolium chloride.