Field research was conducted at Columbia and Novelty, MO, to determine the impact of winter-annual weed management systems on corn and soybean grain yields, winter-annual weed control, and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) egg population densities over the crop production cycle. Corn grain yield was not affected by winter-annual weed management systems. Soybean grain yield was not affected by winter weed management systems in 2001, but at Columbia in 2002 winter rye and Italian ryegrass reduced soybean grain yield 62 and 64%, respectively. Fall-applied simazine tribenuron in corn and chlorimuron sulfentrazone in soybean controlled winter-annual weeds greater than 99%. Fall-overseeded winter rye and Italian ryegrass in corn and overseeded Italian ryegrass in soybean controlled winter weeds 66 to 86%. In the soybean studies, race 4 SCN population densities increased (P = 0.08) in the nontreated control and remained stable (P = 0.55) with fall-applied chlorimuron sulfentrazone from fall 2001 to spring 2002 while SCN population densities were reduced (P = 0.06) with spring-applied chlorimuron sulfentrazone from fall 2002 to spring 2003. In the corn studies, none of the winter-annual weed management strategies reduced (P > 0.22) race 2 SCN population densities except winter rye from fall 2001 to spring 2002 (P = 0.05). This research indicates that control of weed species considered to be weak alternative hosts for SCN affected SCN population densities some instances when race 4 SCN population densities were high in a continuous soybean production system or race 2 SCN population densities were low in a 2-yr corn production system.
Nomenclature: Chlorimuron, sulfentrazone, simazine, tribenuron, common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. #3 STEME, field pennycress, Thlaspi arvense L. # THLAR, henbit, Lamium amplexicaule L. # LAMAM, soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, corn, Zea mays L. ‘Asgrow RX740 RR’, Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum L. ‘Marshall’, soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘DK 38-52’, winter rye, Secale cereale L. ‘Forage Master’.
Additional index words: Weed–nematode interaction, integrated pest management.
Abbreviations: COC, crop oil concentrate.