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1 October 2006 Control of Early Watergrass (Echinochloa Oryzoides) and Late Watergrass (Echinochloa Phyllopogon) with Cyhalofop, Clefoxydim, and Penoxsulam Applied Alone and in Mixture with Broadleaf Herbicides
CHRISTOS A. DAMALAS, KICO V. DHIMA, ILIAS G. ELEFTHEROHORINOS
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Abstract

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of application rate, growth stage, and tank-mixing azimsulfuron or bentazon on the activity of cyhalofop, clefoxydim, and penoxsulam against two morphologically distinct Echinochloa species from rice fields in Greece. Mixtures of penoxsulam with MCPA were also evaluated. Cyhalofop (300 to 600 g ai/ha) applied at the three- to four-leaf growth stage provided 62 to 85% control of early watergrass but 41 to 83% control of late watergrass averaged over mixture treatments. Control ranged from 37 to 80% for early watergrass and from 35 to 78% for late watergrass when cyhalofop was applied at the five- to six-leaf growth stage averaged over mixture treatments. Mixtures of cyhalofop with azimsulfuron or bentazon reduced efficacy on both species irrespective of growth stage or cyhalofop application rate compared with cyhalofop alone. Clefoxydim (100 to 250 g ai/ha) applied alone at the three- to four-leaf growth stage provided 98 to 100% control of early watergrass and 91 to 100% control of late watergrass; when clefoxydim was applied alone at the five- to six-leaf growth stage the control obtained was 91 to 100% for early watergrass and 79 to 100% for late watergrass. Mixtures of clefoxydim with azimsulfuron or bentazon reduced efficacy on late watergrass at the early growth stage and on both species at the late growth stage. Penoxsulam (20 to 40 g ai/ha) applied alone provided 94 to 100% control of both species at both growth stages. Mixtures of MCPA with penoxsulam reduced efficacy on late watergrass at the early growth stage and on both species at the late growth stage. Mixtures of penoxsulam with azimsulfuron or bentazon reduced efficacy only on late watergrass at the late growth stage.

Nomenclature: Azimsulfuron, bentazon, clefoxydim (BAS 625H), cyhalofop, penoxsulam (DE-638), early watergrass, Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch. #3 ECHOR, late watergrass, Echinochloa phyllopogon (Stapf.) Koss. # ECHPH.

Additional index words: Antagonism, herbicide interactions, mixtures.

Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment.

CHRISTOS A. DAMALAS, KICO V. DHIMA, and ILIAS G. ELEFTHEROHORINOS "Control of Early Watergrass (Echinochloa Oryzoides) and Late Watergrass (Echinochloa Phyllopogon) with Cyhalofop, Clefoxydim, and Penoxsulam Applied Alone and in Mixture with Broadleaf Herbicides," Weed Technology 20(4), 992-998, (1 October 2006). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-05-140.1
Published: 1 October 2006
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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