Control of common lambsquarters with glyphosate in Michigan soybean fields has been inconsistent. Stem-boring insects and evidence of insect tunneling were found inside the stems of common lambsquarters plants not controlled with glyphosate. In 2004 and 2005, field surveys and studies were conducted to identify and evaluate the prevalence of stem-boring insects in common lambsquarters in Michigan and Indiana soybean fields to determine whether tunneling by insects occurred before or following POST glyphosate applications and to evaluate the effect of glyphosate rate, application timing, and insect tunneling on the control of common lambsquarters with glyphosate. Two insect species, the beet petiole borer (Cosmobaris americana) from the Curculionidae family and an unidentified leafminer fly larvae from the Agromyzidae family were found inside common lambsquarters stems. Leafminer larvae were present in Michigan soybean fields in mid- to late-June, when most POST glyphosate applications are made in Michigan and Indiana; however, beet petiole borer larvae were not found in common lambsquarters stems until mid-July and would only be present in common lambsquarters plants if glyphosate applications occurred at that time. Results from three field experiments in East Lansing, MI, demonstrated the variability in common lambsquarters control. Control ranged from 79 to 98%, 75 to 99%, and 49 to 97% from glyphosate applied at 0.84 kg ae/ha to 10-, 25-, and 46-cm common lambsquarters, respectively. In general, applying glyphosate to common lambsquarters plants 10 cm or less, or increasing the glyphosate rate beyond 0.84 kg ae/ha, improved common lambsquarters control. Insect tunneling by leafminer and beet petiole borer larvae did not contribute to reduced common lambsquarters control with glyphosate applied to 10- and 25-cm common lambsquarters.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate potassium salt, common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album (L.) CHEAL, soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘AG 2701’, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, beet petiole borer, Cosmobaris americana (Casey), Diptera: Agromyzidae, unidentified leafminer fly