Arkansas has been the leading state in rice production in the United States for many years. Barnyardgrass is the dominant weed in Arkansas rice. Propanil was the first highly effective herbicide for weed control in rice and has been used in Arkansas since 1959 as the primary herbicide for rice weed control. By 1989, its continual use led to the development of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass, which had spread to 16 of the 38 rice-producing counties in Arkansas by 1992. Arkansas rice growers are dependent on herbicides for the control of weeds in this drill-seeded crop. The residual herbicides thiobencarb, molinate, and pendimethalin mixed with propanil applied early postemergence improved control of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. But it was quinclorac, introduced in 1992, that became the real replacement treatment for propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. Then in 1999, a barnyardgrass biotype with resistance to both quinclorac and propanil was confirmed in Craighead County, Arkansas. Additionally, problems with quinclorac drift to other crops, especially tomato, led to restrictions on application of quinclorac in Arkansas by 1994. Fortunately, alternative herbicides for barnyardgrass control were developed, and clomazone was introduced in 2000. Clomazone is currently the standard herbicide for annual grasses in rice, including barnyardgrass. Herbicides recently developed for rice allow a broad range of options for a resistance management program, based on rotational and sequential herbicide applications. These include fenoxaprop and cyhalofop (both acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACCase] inhibitors), bispyribac and penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase [ALS] inhibitors), and imazethapyr and imazamox (also ALS inhibitors for imidazolinone-resistant rice). From a global standpoint, there is considerable evidence that barnyardgrass has the propensity to develop resistance to most of these herbicide groups. Therefore, efforts to manage and monitor for herbicide resistance in this species need to be diligently continued. Research on nonchemical options is in progress utilizing weed-suppressive rice breeding lines to control barnyardgrass.
Nomenclature: 2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoic acid, proposed common name bispyribac-sodium; clomazone; cyhalofop; fenoxaprop; imazamox; imazethapyr; molinate; pendimethalin; 2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-6-(trifluoromethyl-N-(5,8-dimethoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-yl))benzenesulfonamide, proposed common name penoxsulam; propanil; quinclorac; thiobencarb; barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ECHCG; rice, Oryza sativa L; tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.