Weed management is evolving to include cultural tactics that reduce weed populations. This study near Brookings, SD, evaluated the effect of crop sequence and tillage on seedling emergence of common sunflower across years. In the third and fourth years of the study, seedling density was sevenfold greater after 2 yr of soybean with tillage compared with a 2-yr sequence of canola and winter wheat with no-till. Apparently, canola and winter wheat enhanced the natural decline of common sunflower seed density in soil, leading to fewer seedlings in following years. In the first year of the study, tillage increased seedling emergence of common sunflower compared with no-till; seedlings rarely emerged in canola or winter wheat. Most seedlings of common sunflower emerged in May, with more than 90% of seedlings emerging between May 7 and June 4. Cool-season crops grown with no-till may affect weed seed survival in soil in the western Corn Belt.
Nomenclature: Common sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. HELAN; canola, Brassica napus L; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.