Field studies were conducted from 2000 to 2002 to determine whether glyphosate applied during periods of low temperature (< 10 C) provides effective control of garlic mustard without injury to nontarget native herbs. A 1% glyphosate solution was applied on three dates between November and March in 2000 to 2001 and 2001 to 2002, when average daily temperatures ranged from −4.2 to 7 C. Glyphosate reduced the population density of prereproductive springtime garlic mustard infestations, regardless of application timing. During the primary bolting period (April to June), mortality of garlic mustard rosettes in sprayed plots was 87 to 94%, whereas mortality in nontreated plots was 12% in the first year and 41% in the second. Nontarget native herbaceous species were not injured by the cold-weather herbicide applications and exhibited higher springtime densities than in the nontreated plots. By targeting garlic mustard rosettes during the part of the year when most other plant species are dormant, managers can selectively control garlic mustard without damage to native herbs and, thereby, increase forest restoration success.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate, garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara and Grande