Field experiments were conducted at Manhattan and Hesston, KS, in 2004, and at Manhattan, KS, in 2005, to evaluate cotton response to seven hormonal-type herbicides. Herbicides 2,4-D amine, 2,4-D ester, clopyralid, picloram, fluroxypyr, triclopyr, and dicamba were each applied at 0, 1/100, 1/200, 1/300, and 1/400 of the herbicide use rates on cotton in the six- to eight-leaf stage. Herbicide use rates were 210 and 280 g ae/ha for fluroxypyr and clopyralid and 561 g ae/ha, for 2,4-D amine, 2,4-D ester, dicamba, picloram, and triclopyr. At 14 d after treatment (DAT), all herbicides caused leaf cupping and epinasty, except triclopyr and clopyralid, which caused severe bleaching and chlorosis. The order of visual injury ratings was 2,4-D ester > 2,4-D amine > picloram > dicamba > fluroxypyr > triclopyr > clopyralid. By 56 DAT, slight injury symptoms were observed on plants treated with all herbicides, except all rates of 2,4-D, from which symptoms were severe. All rates of 2,4-D and the highest rate of picloram caused more than 60% flower abortion. Ranking of fiber yield reduction after herbicide treatment was 2,4-D ester > 2,4-D amine > picloram > fluroxypyr > dicamba > clopyralid > triclopyr. This research demonstrated that cotton is extremely susceptible to simulated drift rates of 2,4-D and picloram, whereas clopyralid and triclopyr caused early injury, with minimal effect on cotton yield.
Nomenclature: Tribufos; S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘PM 2145 RR’.