Grass weeds are a major problem in winter wheat fields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Control of these weeds is now enhanced with the use of imazamox resistant winter wheat cultivars, which have been rapidly adopted by wheat growers. However, the effect of spray rate and timing on crop injury and agronomic traits of wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds has not been adequately evaluated. Thus, experiments were conducted near Moscow and Genesee, ID in the 2003–2004 and 2004–2005 growing seasons to evaluate the effect of imazamox on four resistant cultivars and seven resistant breeding lines. Wheat plants were treated at the 3- to 5-leaf stage and the 3- to 7-tiller stage with 45 and 90 g ai/ha of imazamox. Visible crop injury was evaluated from 14 to 35 d after treatment (DAT). Heading date, plant height, grain yield and test weight, and end-use grain quality also were measured. The cultivar by treatment interaction was significant at 21 DAT, caused by a differential response of wheat lines to imazamox treatment. This interaction also was significant for plant height and grain yield. Although cultivars and breeding lines responded differently to imazamox treatment, two lines consistently showed the least levels (3 to 8%) of crop injury, with no reductions in plant height or grain yield following imazamox application. Orthogonal contrasts of visible crop injury at 21 DAT showed that the 2× imazamox rate caused more crop injury (12%) than the 1× rate (7%). The 2× rate of imazamox reduced plant height 1%, grain yield 8%, test weight 1%, and percent flour yield 1%. All other traits were not affected by application of imazamox. Application timing only minimally affected crop injury, and had no effect on agronomic or end-use quality traits.
Nomenclature: Imazamox; wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘FS4’; ‘Brundage’; ‘Brundage 96’; ‘Lambert’; ‘87-52814A’.