Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in New Jersey to investigate the influence of spray adjuvants on foliar absorption and efficacy of bispyribac–sodium on annual bluegrass, creeping bentgrass, and perennial ryegrass. In laboratory experiments on annual bluegrass, 14C–bispyribac–sodium without an adjuvant had 25% foliar absorption by 8 h after treatment, whereas absorption increased to 45, 46, and 75% when applied with crop oil concentrate, nonionic surfactant, and methylated seed oil, respectively. In creeping bentgrass fairways, sequential bispyribac–sodium applications at 37 g ai/ha with spray adjuvants controlled annual bluegrass similarly to 74 g ai/ha applied sequentially without adjuvants. In perennial ryegrass, treatments with methylated seed oil and nonionic surfactant required 25 and 41% lower bispyribac–sodium rates, respectively, to obtain annual bluegrass control levels comparable to bispyribac–sodium rates without adjuvants. Spray adjuvants did not exacerbate turf-grass discoloration from bispyribac–sodium. Overall, spray-adjuvant use with bispyribac–sodium may allow practitioners to reduce application rates and enhance efficacy for annual bluegrass control.
Nomenclature: Bispyribac–sodium, annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L., ‘L-93’, ‘Penncross’, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., ‘Manhattan 4’