Weed resistance monitoring has been routinely conducted in the Northern Great Plains of Canada (Prairies) since the mid-1990s. Most recently, random surveys were conducted in Alberta in 2001, Manitoba in 2002, and Saskatchewan in 2003 totaling nearly 800 fields. In addition, nearly 1,300 weed seed samples were submitted by growers across the Prairies between 1996 and 2006 for resistance testing. Collected or submitted samples were screened for group 1 [acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor] and/or group 2 [acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor] resistance. Twenty percent of 565 sampled fields had an herbicide-resistant (HR) wild oat biotype. Most populations exhibited broad cross-resistance across various classes of group 1 or group 2 herbicides. In Manitoba, 22% of 59 fields had group 1–HR green foxtail. Group 2–HR biotypes of kochia were documented in Saskatchewan, common chickweed and spiny sowthistle in Alberta, and green foxtail and redroot pigweed in Manitoba. Across the Prairies, HR weeds are estimated to occur in fields covering an area of nearly 5 million ha. Of 1,067 wild oat seed samples submitted by growers and industry for testing between 1996 and 2006, 725 were group 1 HR, 34 group 2 HR, and 55 groups 1 and 2 HR. Of 80 submitted green foxtail samples, 26 were confirmed group 1 HR; most populations originated from southern Manitoba where the weed is most abundant. Similar to the field surveys, various group 2–HR biotypes were confirmed among submitted samples: kochia, wild mustard, field pennycress, Galium spp., common chickweed, and common hempnettle. Information from grower questionnaires indicates patterns of herbicide usage are related to location, changing with cropping system. Two herbicide modes of action most prone to select resistance, groups 1 and 2, continue to be widely and repeatedly used. There is little evidence that growers are aware of the level of resistance within their fields, but a majority have adopted herbicide rotations to proactively or reactively manage HR weeds.
Nomenclature: Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. STEME; common hempnettle, Galeopsis tetrahit L. GAETE; field pennycress, Thlaspi arvense L. THLAR; green foxtail, Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. SETVI; kochia, Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. KSHSC; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. AMARE; spiny sowthistle, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill SONAS; wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis L. SINAR; wild oat, Avena fatua L. AVEFA