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1 October 2009 Control of Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Artillery Range Trials at Ft. Riley, Kansas
Walter H. Fick, Wayne A. Geyer, John Barbur
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Military bases in the United States were mandated to reduce the amount of pesticide used to 50% of 1993 levels by 2000. Historically, 2,4-D was applied to control common sunflower, which establishes itself in disturbed soils and obstructs gunners' views of targets. A 25-ha lowland field in Camp Forsyth was selected to compare efficacy of alternative herbicides with that of 2,4-D low-volatile ester (LVE), with the goal of reducing the amount of herbicide applied by at least half. Site vegetation was mostly native tallgrass prairie dominated by warm-season C4 grasses (e.g., big bluestem, Indiangrass, little bluestem, and switchgrass) and including less abundant C3 species in the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, and other families. Initially, the site had a high population of common sunflower. All herbicide treatments from 3 yr of field trials were highly and equally effective at reducing common sunflower, decreasing stem density by 83 to100%. Treatments that offer substantial reductions in the amount of herbicide applied are chlorimuron (0.01 kg ae/ha), dicamba 2,4-D amine (0.07 kg ae/ha 0.20 kg ae/ha), clopyralid 2,4-D amine (0.06 kg ae/ha 0.28 kg ae/ha), 2,4-D LVE (0.56 kg ae/ha), and metsulfuron 2,4-D amine (0.002 kg ai/ha 0.28 kg ae/ha). Use of these herbicides at Ft. Riley would reduce total active ingredient applied by 73 to 99% and lower chemical costs for this particular use by as much as 88%.

Nomenclature: Chlorimuron; clopyralid; dicamba; metsulfuron; 2,4-D; common sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

Walter H. Fick, Wayne A. Geyer, and John Barbur "Control of Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Artillery Range Trials at Ft. Riley, Kansas," Weed Technology 23(4), 540-543, (1 October 2009).
Received: 25 July 2008; Accepted: 1 September 2009; Published: 1 October 2009

Herbicide costs
herbicide efficacy
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