Kochia control in continuous corn became increasingly difficult in experimental plots where isoxaflutole was used PRE for 8 yr. Studies were conducted to determine if poor kochia control resulted from an escape mechanism based on different germination rates or from a difference in sensitivity to isoxaflutole. Germination at constant temperatures showed that the kochia population in the experimental plot had greater seed dormancy compared with populations growing in adjacent fields. Germination at 25 C for seeds collected from the isoxaflutole-treated area was near 20% after 20 d, whereas germination for the other populations was above 80%. The optimal temperatures to release seed dormancy for seeds from the experimental plot were alternating 35/25 C day/night temperatures. The kochia biotype that predominated where isoxaflutole was applied PRE had elevated levels of seed dormancy and required higher alternating temperatures to release dormancy than untreated control kochia. These characteristics were unique and not found in populations never exposed to isoxaflutole. Chlorophyll content was measured to determine if differences in sensitivity to isoxaflutole existed among biotypes. Absorption at 660 nm by photosynthetic pigments was similar among the biotypes at increasing herbicide rates, indicating no differences in sensitivity to isoxaflutole among populations. Reduced kochia control in the experimental plot was due to delayed seed germination, which allowed isoxaflutole to degrade before seeds germinated. The rapid herbicide dissipation from soil can be attributed in part to coarse soils, soil moisture, and the low isoxaflutole rate.
Nomenclature: Isoxaflutole; kochia, Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad; corn, Zea mays L.