Persistent use of herbicides has resulted in the selection of many herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. A survey of 75 fields in the Palouse region of the inland Pacific Northwest was conducted to determine the extent of Italian ryegrass resistance to grass herbicides commonly used in winter wheat-cropping systems. Plants grown from collected seed samples were tested for resistance to diclofop, clodinafop, quizalofop, tralkoxydim, sethoxydim, clethodim, pinoxaden, triasulfuron, mesosulfuron, flucarbazone, imazamox, and flufenacet/metribuzin. Averaged across herbicide families within a herbicide group, some level of resistance was exhibited in 73, 31, and 31% of the populations to the aryloxyphenoxypropionates, cyclohexanediones, and phenylpyrazoline herbicides, respectively, and 39, 53, and 55% of the populations to the sulfonylureas, sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinone, and imidazolinone herbicides, respectively. Twelve percent of the populations showed some level of resistance to flufenacet/metribuzin. Cross-resistance to all acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-inhibiting (group 1) herbicides was observed in 12% of the populations, whereas 25% of the populations were cross-resistant to all acetolactate synthase-inhibiting (group 2) herbicides tested. Of all the populations tested, 7% exhibited multiple resistance to at least one herbicide within all three groups tested. Only 5% of populations were completely susceptible to all 12 herbicides tested. These results indicate that herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass populations are now common across much of the Palouse region in northern Idaho and eastern Washington.
Nomenclature: Clethodim; clodinafop; diclofop; flucarbazone; flufenacet/metribuzin; imazamox; mesosulfuron; pinoxaden; quizalofop; sethoxydim; tralkoxydim; triasulfuron; Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum L. LOLMU; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.