Field experiments in winter wheat were initiated at two locations in the fall of 2006 and 2007 to evaluate winter annual broadleaf weeds and winter wheat response to POST applications of two saflufenacil formulations applied alone and in combination with 2,4-D amine. Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations of saflufenacil at 13, 25, and 50 g ai ha−1 were applied with 1.0% (v/v) crop oil concentrate (COC) and mixed with 2,4-D amine at 533 g ae ha−1 without adjuvant. Regardless of rate or formulation, saflufenacil plus COC and saflufenacil plus 2,4-D amine controlled blue mustard ≥ 91% at 17 to 20 d after treatment (DAT) compared with ≤ 50% control with 2,4-D amine alone. At least 25 g ha−1 of saflufenacil EC was necessary to control flixweed > 90%. Excluding COC from saflufenacil plus 2,4-D amine reduced flixweed control from the saflufenacil WG formulation more than the EC formulation. Most saflufenacil treatments did not control henbit satisfactorily (≤ 80%). Wheat foliar necrosis increased with increasing saflufenacil rate to as high as 30% at 3 to 6 DAT, but declined to < 15% at 10 to 20 DAT and was not evident at 30 DAT. Saflufenacil rate, formulation, and mixing with 2,4-D amine also influenced wheat stunting, but to a lesser extent than foliar necrosis. Saflufenacil EC consistently caused greater foliar necrosis and stunting on wheat than saflufenacil WG. Leaf necrosis and stunting were reduced by tank-mixing saflufenacil formulations with 2,4-D amine without COC. Grain yields of most saflufenacil treatments were similar to 2,4-D amine under weedy conditions and herbicide treatments had no effect on grain yield in weed-free experiments. Saflufenacil formulations at 25 to 50 g ha−1 with 2,4-D amine and saflufenacil WG at 25 to 50 g ha−1 with COC can control winter annual broadleaf weeds with minimal injury (< 15%) and no grain yield reductions. The addition of saflufenacil as a POST-applied herbicide would give wheat growers another useful tool to control annual broadleaf weeds, including herbicide-resistant weed species.
Nomenclature: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid amine, 2,4-D amine; saflufenacil, N′-[2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-(3-methyl-2,6-dioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)benzyl]-N-isopropyl-N-methylsulfamide; blue mustard, Chorispora tenella (Pallas) DC. COBTE; flixweed, Descurainia sophia L. Webb. ex Prantl DESSO; henbit, Lamium amplexicaule L. LAMAM; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘AP502-CL’, ‘Danby’, and ‘KS03HW6-1’.