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1 October 2010 Evaluation of Oriental Mustard (Brassica juncea) Seed Meal for Weed Suppression in Turf
Daniel T. Earlywine, Reid J. Smeda, Travis C. Teuton, Carl E. Sams, Xi Xiong
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Oriental mustard seed meal (MSM), a byproduct generated by pressing the seed for oil, exhibits herbicidal properties. In turfgrass, soil fumigants such as methyl bromide are used to control weeds prior to renovation of turf. Environmental concerns have resulted in deregistration of methyl bromide, prompting the need for alternatives. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of MSM on the establishment of selected turfgrass weeds as well as inhibitory effects on establishment of desirable turfgrasses. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 at the University of Missouri. MSM was amended in soil at 0, 1,350 (low), 2,350 (medium), and 3,360 kg ha−1 (high) concentrations. Weed species included annual bluegrass, large crabgrass, buckhorn plantain, white clover, and common chickweed. Turfgrass species included: Rembrandt tall fescue, Evening Shade perennial rye, and Riviera bermudagrass. All species were seeded into soil amended with MSM and either tarped or left untarped. All treatments were compared to dazomet (392 kg ha−1), a synthetic standard. Plant counts and biomass of all species were recorded 4 wk after seeding. Overall, tarped treatments suppressed weed emergence 27 to 50% more compared to untarped treatments, except for large crabgrass. High rates of MSM suppressed emergence of all weeds ≥ 63%. Compared to the untreated control, the density of buckhorn plantain, white clover, and common chickweed was reduced by ≥ 42% at low rates of MSM. Biomass of buckhorn plantain, annual bluegrass, common chickweed, white clover, and large crabgrass was reduced from 37 to 99% at high rates of MSM. MSM at high rates reduced stand counts of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass up to 81% and 77% respectively, compared to the untreated control. Regardless of MSM rates or tarping, suppression of common bermudagrass emergence did not exceed 30%; tarped treatments actually increased bermudagrass emergence by 22%. The biomass for tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and bermudagrass was reduced by 85, 68, and 10%, respectively, at high rates of MSM. For tall fescue, MSM at all rates strongly suppressed seed germination by 7 d after planting (DAP) (up to 100%), with additional germination observed through 14 DAP, but not thereafter. In both trials, dazomet completely suppressed emergence of all weeds. MSM appears to suppress emergence and growth of a number of weeds common in turf, with potential selectivity for bermudagrass.

Nomenclature: Dazomet, tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione; glucosinolates (GSL); isothiocyanates (ITC); methyl isothiocyanate (MITC); Oriental mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.; annual bluegrass, Poa annua L. POAAN; buckhorn plantain, Plantago lanceolata L. PLALA; common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. STEME; large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. DIGSA; white clover, Trifolium repens L. TRFRE; ‘Evening Shade’ perennial rye, Lolium perenne L. LOLPE; ‘Rembrandt’ tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. FESAR; ‘Riviera’ bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Daniel T. Earlywine, Reid J. Smeda, Travis C. Teuton, Carl E. Sams, and Xi Xiong "Evaluation of Oriental Mustard (Brassica juncea) Seed Meal for Weed Suppression in Turf," Weed Technology 24(4), 440-445, (1 October 2010).
Received: 28 October 2009; Accepted: 10 February 2010; Published: 1 October 2010

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