Quinoclamine is used in Europe, and was under evaluation in the Unites States for the control of liverwort in nursery crops. Liverwort is a nonvascular, chlorophyll-containing plant that can be problematic in greenhouse and nursery crops. POST-applied quinoclamine controls liverwort. However, liverwort structures vary in their sensitivity to POST-applied quinoclamine. Specifically, archegonial receptacles (female) are much more tolerant of quinoclamine than either antheridial receptacles (male) or thalli (leaflike structures). A series of studies were conducted to, first, document the degree of differential sensitivity between tissues to quinoclamine, and second, to determine the basis of this differential sensitivity. The dose that results in 50% of the population being controlled (I50) of antheridial receptacles and juvenile thalli were estimated to be 1.60 and 1.27 kg·ha−1, respectively. The I50 of archegonial receptacles could not be estimated, but exceeded 10.45 kg·ha−1. Chlorophyll content varied between liverwort tissues, but the content did not correlate to quinoclamine sensitivity. Absorption of 14C after application of radiolabeled quinoclamine was less in archegonial receptacles than in either antheridial receptacles or thalli. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the liverwort tissues revealed that archegonial receptacles had smaller pores (equivalent to stomata in higher plants) than either antheridial receptacles or thalli. The tolerance of archegonial receptacles to quinoclamine can be partially, but not exclusively, attributed to reduced absorption. This reduced absorption may be attributed to the limited pore size and less total pore area of the archegonial receptacles.
Nomenclature: Liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L.; quinoclamine.