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1 March 2013 Predicted Corn Yield Loss Due to Weed Competition Prior to Postemergence Herbicide Application on Wisconsin Farms
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Abstract

Approximately 50% of the genetically modified herbicide-resistant corn hectares in the United States are treated only with POST-applied herbicides for weed management. Although a high degree of efficacy can be obtained with POST-applied herbicides, delayed timing of application may result in substantial corn yield loss. Our goal was to characterize on-farm corn–weed communities prior to POST herbicide application and estimate potential corn-yield loss associated with early-season corn–weed competition. In 2008 and 2009, field surveys were conducted across 95 site-years in southern Wisconsin and recorded weed species, density, and height in addition to crop height, growth stage, and row spacing. WeedSOFT® was used to predict corn yield loss. Common lambsquarters, velvetleaf, dandelion, common ragweed, and Amaranthus species were the five most abundant broadleaf weed species across site-years, present in 92, 86, 59, 45, and 44% of all fields, respectively, at mean densities of 19, 3, 3, 4, and 3 plants m−2, respectively. Mean plant heights among these species were 17 cm or less. Grass and sedge species occurred in 96% of fields at a mean density of 25 plants m−2 and height of 7 cm. The mean and median of total weed density across site-years were 96 and 52 plants m−2, with heights of 14 and 13 cm, respectively. Mean predicted corn yield loss was 4.5% with a mean economic loss of $62 ha−1. However, predicted yield loss was greater than 5% on one-third of the site-years, with a maximum of 26%. These results indicate that delayed application of POST herbicides has led to corn yield loss due to early-season weed-crop competition on a substantial number of fields across southern Wisconsin, and suggest that management tactics need to be improved to protect corn yield potential fully.

Nomenclature: Glyphosate, Amaranthus spp,; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. CHEAL; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.; AMBEL; dandelion, Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers TAROF; velvet-leaf, Abutilon theorphrasti Medik. ABUTH; corn, Zea Mays L.

Aproximadamente 50% de las hectáreas de maíz genéticamente modificado con resistencia a herbicidas en los Estados Unidos son tratados solamente con herbicidas aplicados POST para el manejo de malezas. Aunque un alto grado de eficacia puede ser obtenido con aplicaciones de herbicidas POST, atrasos en el momento de aplicación pueden resultar en pérdidas sustanciales en el rendimiento del maíz. Nuestro objetivo fue caracterizar las comunidades de maíz-malezas en fincas antes de las aplicaciones de herbicidas POST y estimar el potencial de pérdida en rendimiento del maíz asociado con la competencia temprana entre el maíz y las malezas. En 2008 y 2009, se realizaron evaluaciones de campo en 95 sitios-años en el sur de Wisconsin y se determinó las especies de malezas, densidad, y altura además de altura, estado de desarrollo y espacio entre hileras del cultivo. WeedSOFT® fue usado para predecir las pérdidas en rendimiento del maíz. Chenopodium album, Abutilon theophrasti, Taraxacum officinale, Ambrosia artemisiifolia y especies de Amaranthus fueron las cinco especies de malezas de hoja ancha más abundantes a lo largo de los sitios-años, y estuvieron presentes en 92, 86, 59, 45 y 44% de todos los campos, respectivamente, con densidades promedio de 19, 3, 3, 4 y 3 plantas m−2, respectivamente. La altura promedio de estas especies fue 17 cm o men

Nathanael D. Fickett, Chris M. Boerboom, and David E. Stoltenberg "Predicted Corn Yield Loss Due to Weed Competition Prior to Postemergence Herbicide Application on Wisconsin Farms," Weed Technology 27(1), 54-62, (1 March 2013). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00097.1
Received: 28 June 2012; Accepted: 12 September 2012; Published: 1 March 2013
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