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1 January 2014 Growth Stage Affects Response of Selected Weed Species to Flaming
Stevan Z. Knezevic, Strahinja Stepanovic, Avishek Datta
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Propane flaming could be an alternative tool for PRE control or suppression of early-emerging weeds in organic and conventional crops. The objective of this study was to test the tolerance of selected early-season weeds to broadcast flaming in no-till systems. Four winter annuals (tansy mustard, henbit, cutleaf evening primrose, and field pennycress), one summer annual (common lambsquarters), and one perennial (dandelion) species were included in the study. Except for dandelion, the response to propane flaming was evaluated at two growth stages. Flaming treatments were applied using an all-terrain-vehicle-mounted flamer moving 4.8 km h−1, and propane pressure was adjusted to deliver doses of 0 (nonflamed control), 22, 34, 48, 67, and 90 kg ha−1. The response of each species to propane doses was described by log-logistic models based on visual ratings of weed control and dry matter reduction. Response to broadcast flaming varied among species and growth stages. Common lambsquarters, tansy mustard, and henbit were more susceptible to flaming than cutleaf evening primrose, field pennycress, and dandelion. On the basis of visual ratings, propane doses between 54 and 62 kg ha−1 effectively controlled (90% control) common lambsquarters at the early growth stage (five-leaf), tansy mustard at both growth stages (nine-leaf and flowering), and henbit (flowering). However, a higher propane dose (> 80 kg ha−1) was necessary to obtain 90% control of common lambsquarters in later growth stage (11-leaf) and early growth stage of henbit (nine-leaf). Cutleaf evening primrose, field pennycress, and dandelion exhibited higher levels of tolerance to broadcast flaming. A 90% control of these species was not achieved even with the highest propane dose (90 kg ha−1) utilized in the study. Results of this study indicate that a single application of broadcast flaming can be an effective tool for controlling tansy mustard, henbit, and common lambsquarters and temporary suppression of cutleaf evening primrose, field pennycress, and dandelion.

Nomenclature: Dandelion; Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers. TAROF; field pennycress; Thlaspi arvense L. THLAR; cutleaf evening primrose; Oenothera laciniata Hill. OEOLA; henbit; Lamium amplexicaule L. LAMAM; tansy mustard; Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt. DESPI; common lambsquarters; Chenopodium album L. CHEAL.

La quema con llama de propano puede ser una herramienta alternativa para el control PRE o la supresión de malezas de emergencia temprana en cultivos convencionales y orgánicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar la tolerancia de algunas malezas de emergencia temprana a la quema de cobertura total en sistemas de labranza cero. En el estudio se incluyeron cuatro especies anuales de invierno (Descurainia pinnata, Lamium amplexicaule, Oenothera laciniata, y Thlaspi arvense), una anual de verano (Chenopodium album), y una perenne (Taraxacum officinale). A excepción de T. officinale, la respuesta a la quema con llama de propano se evaluó en dos estadios de desarrollo. Los tratamientos de quema se aplicaron usando un quemador montado en un vehículo de todo terreno a una velocidad de 4.8 km h−1, y una presión de propano que fue ajustada para generar dosis de 0 (testigo sin quema), 22, 34, 48, 67, y 90 kg ha−1. La respuesta de cada especie a las dosis de propano fue descrita con modelos

Stevan Z. Knezevic, Strahinja Stepanovic, and Avishek Datta "Growth Stage Affects Response of Selected Weed Species to Flaming," Weed Technology 28(1), 233-242, (1 January 2014).
Received: 7 April 2013; Accepted: 1 August 2013; Published: 1 January 2014

growth stage
nonchemical weed control
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