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1 April 2014 Controlling Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri) in Cotton with Resistance to Glyphosate, 2,4-D, and Glufosinate
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Abstract

Field experiments were conducted in Macon County, Georgia, during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of new herbicide-resistant cotton and respective herbicide systems on the control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Sequential POST applications of 2,4-D or glufosinate followed by diuron plus MSMA directed at layby (late POST-directed) controlled Palmer amaranth 62 to 79% and 46 to 49% at harvest when the initial application was made to 8- or 18–cm-tall Palmer amaranth, in separate trials, respectively. Mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D applied sequentially followed by the layby controlled Palmer amaranth 95 to 97% regardless of Palmer amaranth height. Mixing glyphosate with 2,4-D improved control beyond that observed with 2,4-D alone, but control was still only 79 to 86% at harvest depending on 2,4-D rate. Sequential applications of glyphosate plus 2,4-D controlled Palmer amaranth 95 to 96% following the use of either pendimethalin or fomesafen. Seed cotton yield was at least 30% higher with 2,4-D plus glufosinate systems compared to systems with either herbicide alone. The addition of pendimethalin and/or fomesafen PRE did not improve Palmer amaranth control or yields when glufosinate plus 2,4-D were applied sequentially followed by the layby. The addition of these residual herbicides improved at harvest control (87 to 96%) when followed by sequential applications of 2,4-D or 2,4-D plus glyphosate; yields from these systems were similar to those with glufosinate plus 2,4-D. Comparison of 2,4-D and 2,4-DB treatments confirmed that 2,4-D is a more effective option for the control of Palmer amaranth. Results from these experiments suggest cotton with resistance to glufosinate, glyphosate, and 2,4-D will improve Palmer amaranth management. At-plant residual herbicides should be recommended for consistent performance of all 2,4-D systems across environments, although cotton with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and 2,4-D will allow greater flexibility in selecting PRE herbicide(s), which should reduce input costs, carryover concerns, and crop injury when compared to current systems.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D; 2,4-DB; diuron; glufosinate; glyphosate; MSMA; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats. AMAPA; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

Experimentos de campo fueron realizados en el condado Macon, Georgia, durante 2010 y 2011 para determinar el impacto de nuevos sistemas de algodón resistentes a herbicidas y sus respectivos herbicidas en el control de Amaranthus palmeri resistente a glyphosate. Aplicaciones secuenciales POST de 2,4-D o glufosinate seguidas de diuron más MSMA dirigidas a la base del cultivo (aplicaciones POST dirigidas tarde en el ciclo de crecimiento) controlaron A. palmeri 62 a 79% y 46 a 49% al momento de la cosecha cuando la aplicación inicial se hizo a A. palmeri de 8 a 18 cm de altura, en estudios independientes, respectivamente. Mezclas de glufosinate más 2,4-D aplicados secuencialmente seguidos por la aplicación dirigida controlaron A. palmeri 95 a 97% sin importar la altura de la maleza. El mezclar glyphosate con 2,4-D mejoró el control más allá del control observado con 2,4-D solo, pero aún así el control fue solamente 79 a 86% al momento de la cosecha, dependiendo de la dosis de 2,4-D. Aplicaciones secuenciales de glyphosate más 2,4-D controlaron A. palmeri 95 a 96% cuando se usaron después de aplicaciones de pendimethalin o fomesafen. El rendimiento de semilla del algodón fue al menos 30% mayor en sistemas con 2,4-D más glufosinate en comparación con los sistemas que tuvieron solamente aplicaciones de cualquiera de estos dos herbicid

Rand M. Merchant, A. Stanley Culpepper, Peter M. Eure, John S. Richburg, and L. Bo Braxton "Controlling Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri) in Cotton with Resistance to Glyphosate, 2,4-D, and Glufosinate," Weed Technology 28(2), 291-297, (1 April 2014). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-13-00104.1
Received: 12 June 2013; Accepted: 1 November 2013; Published: 1 April 2014
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