Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth escaping residual herbicides is difficult to manage in cotton because of its rapid growth and a limited number of effective herbicide options to control emerged plants. An experiment was conducted at two dryland and two irrigated sites in Georgia during 2011 and 2012 to determine if cotton resistant to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and glufosinate could be used to salvage a crop infested with large Palmer amaranth. Three POST herbicide systems, including sequential applications of 2,4-D, sequential applications of 2,4-D plus glufosinate, or 2,4-D followed by (fb) glufosinate, were applied with intervals of 5, 10, or 15 d between POST applications. All three systems were followed by diuron plus MSMA directed at layby. At the dryland sites with high temperatures and drought conditions, no program provided greater than 90% control. However, the 2,4-D plus glufosinate system was at least twice as effective in controlling 20-cm-tall Palmer amaranth and produced at least three times more cotton than the other two systems, when pooled over POST application intervals. Intervals of 10 or 15 d between POST applications were 23 to 27% more effective than a 5-d interval in controlling Palmer amaranth when pooled over POST herbicide systems; yields were nearly twice as much with the 10-d interval compared to 5 d. At the irrigated site, overall weed control was greater with less treatment differences noted. Palmer amaranth that was 20 cm tall at application was controlled 98 to 99%, 92 to 93%, and 81 to 94% by glufosinate plus 2,4-D, 2,4-D fb glufosinate, and 2,4-D fb 2,4-D systems at harvest, respectively. Intervals between POST applications only influenced control by the POST 2,4-D system, and the 10-d interval was more effective than the 5-d interval. Carpetweed, Florida beggarweed, and smallflower morningglory were controlled 99% at harvest by all systems; however, it was noted that control of carpetweed and Florida beggarweed prior to layby was less effective with 2,4-D than systems including glufosinate. In the event of an at-plant residual herbicide failure in fields infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, our research demonstrates that glufosinate plus 2,4-D sequentially applied 10 to 15 d apart followed by a timely layby application controlled the target weeds in cotton with resistance to 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; diuron; glufosinate; glyphosate; MSMA; carpetweed, Mollugo verticillata L. MOLVE; Florida beggarweed, Desmodium tortuosum [Sw] DC. DEDTO; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats. AMAPA; smallflower morningglory, Jacquemontia tamnifolia [L.] Griseb. IAQTA; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.
En algodón y cuando escapa a herbicidas residuales, Amaranthus palmeri resistente a glyphosate es difícil de manejar debido a su rápido crecimiento y al limitado número de opciones de herbicidas efectivos para el control de plantas emergidas. Se realizó un experimento en dos sitios sin riego y en dos sitios con riego en Georgia en 2011 y 2012 para determinar si el algodón resistente a glyphosate, 2,4-D, y glufosinate podría ser usado para salvar a un cultivo infestado con plantas grandes de A. palmeri. Tres sistemas de herbicidas POST, los cuales incluyeron aplicaciones secuenciales de 2,4-D, aplicaciones secuenciales de 2,4-D más glufosinate, o 2,4-D seguido de (fb) glufosinate, fueron aplicados a intervalos de 5, 10 ó 15 d entre aplicaciones POST. Los tres sistemas fueron seguidos por diuron más MSMA dirigido antes del cierre del dosel. En los sitios sin riego, con altas temperaturas y condiciones de sequía, ningún programa brindó control su