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1 April 2014 Tolerance of Five Warm-Season Turfgrass Species to Flumioxazin
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Flumioxazin provides PRE and POST, annual weed control in dormant bermudagrass, but applications during active growth may be injurious. Flumioxazin could also provide an alternative chemistry for POST annual bluegrass control in other turfgrasses, but research is limited on tolerance levels. The objective of this research was to evaluate tolerance of five warm-season turfgrasses to flumioxazin applied at various rates and timings. Late-winter applications of flumioxazin at 0.21, 0.42, or 0.84 kg ai ha−1 caused acceptable (< 20%) injury to bermudagrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass at 3, 6, and 9 wk after treatment (WAT) in both years. In 2012, late-winter applications to centipedegrass caused unacceptable injury at 6 WAT, but turf recovered to acceptable levels by 9 WAT at all rates. Applications made during active turfgrass growth caused unacceptable initial injury to all species. However, bermudagrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass recovered to < 20% injury by 9 WAT from all rates. In 2012, centipedegrass treated in midspring had 0, 24, and 74% injury from flumioxazin at 0.21, 0.42, and 0.84 kg ha−1, respectively, at 9 WAT. In 2013, midspring applications to centipedegrass caused 13, 48, and 71% injury from 0.21, 0.42, and 0.84 kg ha−1, respectively at 9 WAT. Overall, flumioxazin has the potential to control annual weeds in bermudagrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass with late-winter applications before greenup, but all turfgrasses may be excessively injured during active growth.

Nomenclature: Flumioxazin; annual bluegrass; Poa annua L.; bermudagrass × African dogstooth grass; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy ‘Tifway'; centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] ‘TifBlair'; seashore paspalum; Paspalum vaginatum Sw. ‘Sea Isle I'; St. Augustinegrass; Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze ‘Palmetto'; zoysiagrass; Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. ‘Zeon'.

Flumioxazin provee control PRE y POST de malezas anuales en césped bermuda en latencia, pero las aplicaciones durante períodos de crecimiento activo pueden causar daño al césped. Flumioxazin podría brindar también una alternativa química para el control POST de Poa annua en otros especies de césped, pero la investigación sobre niveles de tolerancia es limitada. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la tolerancia de cinco especies de césped de clima cálido a flumioxazin aplicado en diferentes dosis y momentos. Aplicaciones tardías en el invierno de flumioxazin a 0.21, 0.42, ó 0.84 kg ai ha−1 causaron un daño aceptable (<20%) en los céspedes bermuda, seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), San Agustín (Stenotaphrum secundatum), y zoysia (Zoysia matrella) a 3, 6, y 9 semanas después del tratamiento (WAT) en ambos años. En 2012, aplicaciones tardías en el invierno al césped ciempiés (Emerochloa ophiuroides) causaron un daño inaceptable a 6 WAT, pero el césped se recuperó a niveles aceptables, a 9 WAT en todas las dosis. Las aplicaciones hechas durante el crecimiento activo del césped causó un daño inicial inaceptable a todas las especies. Sin embargo, los céspedes bermuda, seashore paspalum, San Agustín, y zoysia se recuperaron con <20% de daño, a 9 WAT en todas las dosis. En 2012, el césped ciempiés tratado durante la mitad de la primavera tuvo 0, 24, y 74% de daño producto de dosis de flumioxazin de 0.21, 0.42, y 0.84 kg ha−1, respectivamente, a 9 WAT. En 2013, las aplicaciones al césped ciempiés en medio de la primavera causaron 13, 48, y

Thomas V. Reed and Patrick E. McCullough "Tolerance of Five Warm-Season Turfgrass Species to Flumioxazin," Weed Technology 28(2), 340-350, (1 April 2014).
Received: 14 September 2013; Accepted: 1 November 2013; Published: 1 April 2014

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