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1 March 2015 Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India
Adusumilli Narayana Rao, Suhas P. Wani, Mugalodi Ramesha, Jagdish K. Ladha
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Abstract

Rice is one of the staple food crops of India, and Karnataka is one of the major rice-producing states. The primary method of rice establishment in Karnataka is transplanting, but farmers are opting to shift to direct-seeding of rice. Weed management is critical for realizing optimal yield of direct-seeded rice (DSR). The objective of this review was to synthesize the published literature on weeds and weed management in rice in Karnataka, identify improved weed-management technologies for delivery to farmers, and suggest research needs. Some 98 weed species are reported to be associated with rice in Karnataka. Weed control to date in Karnataka has mostly been based on herbicides. Hand-weeding was found to be effective in all methods of rice establishment. However, it is time-consuming, tedious, and costly because labor is becoming scarce and unavailable, and labor wages are higher. Several PRE and POST herbicides that were effective in other Asian countries were also found to be effective in managing weeds in rice established by different methods in Karnataka. Bensulfuron plus pretilachlor and pyrazosulfuron in aerobic rice and pendimethalin, thiobencarb, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop, fenoxaprop plus chlorimuron plus metsulfuron, and fenoxaprop plus ethoxysulfuron in dry-DSR were found effective in managing weeds. In wet-DSR, butachlor plus safener and pretilachlor plus safener were effective. Thiobencarb, pendimethalin, pretilachlor, azimsulfuron plus metsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, butachlor, cinosulfuron, oxadiazon, and quinclorac were found promising for weed management in transplanted rice. Integration of herbicides with hand-weeding or intercultivation was found to be effective in rice established by different methods. Options that were found economical in managing weeds varied across the different rice-establishment methods. The need for developing location-specific, sustainable, integrated weed management and extension of available technologies for the farming community in Karnataka is emphasized.

Nomenclature: Azimsulfuron; bensulfuron; bispyribac-sodium; butachlor; chlorimuron; cinosulfuron; cyhalofop; ethoxysulfuron; fenoxaprop; metsulfuron; oxadiazon; pendimethalin; pretilachlor; pyrazosulfuron; quinclorac; thiobencarb; rice, Oryza sativa L.

El arroz es uno de los alimentos básicos de India, y Karnataka es uno de los estados con mayor producción de arroz. El método primario de establecimiento de arroz en Karnataka es el trasplante, pero los productores están optando por cambiar a la siembra directa del arroz. El manejo de malezas es crítico para alcanzar un rendimiento óptimo en arroz de siembra directa (DSR). El objetivo de esta revisión es sintetizar la literatura publicada acerca de las especies de malezas y el manejo de malezas en arroz en Karnataka, identificar tecnologías que mejoren el manejo de malezas, y sugerir cuáles son las necesidades de investigación. Noventa y ocho especies de malezas están reportadas como asociadas al arroz en Karnataka. Hasta la fecha, el control de malezas en Karnataka se ha basado mayoritariamente en el uso de herbicidas. Se encontró que la deshierba manual es efectiva en todos los métodos de establecimiento del arroz, sin embargo, toma mucho tiempo, es tediosa, y de alto costo porque la mano de obra es escaza o no está disponible del todo, y los salarios son cada vez más altos. También se encontró que varios herbicidas PRE y POST que son efectivos en otros países asiáticos son efectivos en el manejo de malezas en diferentes métodos de establecimiento de arroz en Karnataka. Se encontró que bensulfuron más pretilachlor y pyrazosulfuron en arroz aeróbico, y pendimethalin, thiobencarb, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop, fenoxaprop más chlorimuron más metsulfuron, y fenoxaprop más ethoxysulfuron en DSR-en seco fueron efectivos para el manejo de malezas. En DSR-en mojado, butola

Adusumilli Narayana Rao, Suhas P. Wani, Mugalodi Ramesha, and Jagdish K. Ladha "Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India," Weed Technology 29(1), 1-17, (1 March 2015). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-14-00057.1
Received: 19 May 2014; Accepted: 1 August 2014; Published: 1 March 2015
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KEYWORDS
Aerobic rice
Dry direct-seeded rice
integrated weed management
transplanted rice
wet direct-seeded rice
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