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1 June 2015 Evaluating the Volatility of Three Formulations of 2,4-D When Applied in the Field
Lynn M. Sosnoskie, A. Stanley Culpepper, L. Bo Braxton, John S. Richburg
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Cotton genetically engineered to be resistant to topical applications of 2,4-D could provide growers with an additional tool for managing difficult-to-control broadleaf species. However, the successful adoption of this technology will be dependent on the ability of growers to manage off-target herbicide movement. Field experiments were conducted in Moultrie, GA, to evaluate cotton injury resulting from the volatilization of 2,4-D when formulated as an ester, an amine, or a choline salt. Each formulation of 2,4-D (2.24 kg ha−1) was applied in mixture with glyphosate (2.24 kg ha−1) directly to the soil surface (10 to 20% crop residue) in individual square blocks (750 m2). Following herbicide applications, replicate sets of four potted cotton plants (five- to seven-leaf stage) were placed at distances ranging from 1.5 to 48 m from the edge of each treatment. Plants were allowed to remain in-field for up to 48 h before being removed. Cotton exposed to 2,4-D ester for 48 h exhibited maximum injury ratings of 63, 57, 48, 29, 13, and 2% at distances of 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m, respectively. Less than 5% injury was noted for the amine and choline formulations at any distance. Plant height was also affected by formulation and distance; plants that were located closest to the ester-treated block were smaller than their more distantly-positioned counterparts. Exposure to the amine and choline formulations did not affect plant heights. Additionally, two plastic tunnels were placed inside of each treated block to concentrate volatiles and maximize the potential for crop injury. Injury ratings of 76, 13, and 5% were noted for cotton exposed to the ester, amine, and choline formulations, respectively when under tunnels for 48 h. Results indicate that the choline formulation of 2,4-D was less volatile and injurious to cotton than the ester under the field conditions in this study.

Nomenclature: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, glyphosate; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. AMAPA; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

El algodón genéticamente diseñado para ser resistente a las aplicaciones tópicas de 2,4-D podría brindar a los productores una herramienta adicional para el manejo de especies de hoja ancha difíciles de controlar. Sin embargo, la adopción exitosa de esta tecnología dependerá de la habilidad de los productores de manejar el movimiento del herbicida a lugares no deseados. Se realizaron experimentos de campo en Moultrie, Georgia, para evaluar el daño en algodón resultante de la volatilización de 2,4-D cuando se formuló como ester, amine, o sal choline. Cada formulación de 2,4-D (2.24 kg ha−1) fue aplicada en mezcla con glyphosate (2.24 kg ha−1) directamente a la superficie del suelo (10 a 20% de residuos de cultivos) en parcelas cuadradas individuales (750 m2). Seguido de las aplicaciones del herbicida, grupos replicados de cuatro plantas de algodón en contenedores (en el estado de cinco a siete hojas) fueron colocados a distancias que variarían de 1.5 a 48 m del borde de cada tratamiento. Las plantas fueron mantenidas en el campo por períodos de hasta 48 h antes de ser removidas. El algodón expuesto a 2,4-D ester por 48 h mostró evaluaciones de daño máximas de 63, 57, 48, 29, 13, y 2% a distancias de 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, y 48 m, respectivamente. Para las formulaciones amine y choline, el daño notado fue menor a 5% en cualquiera de las distancias evaluadas. La altura de planta también fue afectada por la formulación y la distancia; las plantas que estaban más cerca de la parcela tratada con ester fueron más pequeñas que aquellas que estaban a mayor distancia. La exposición a las formulaciones amine y choline no afectó la altura de las plantas. Adicionalmente, se colocaron dos túneles de plástico dentro de cada pa

Lynn M. Sosnoskie, A. Stanley Culpepper, L. Bo Braxton, and John S. Richburg "Evaluating the Volatility of Three Formulations of 2,4-D When Applied in the Field," Weed Technology 29(2), 177-184, (1 June 2015).
Received: 30 September 2014; Accepted: 1 December 2014; Published: 1 June 2015

Auxinic herbicide
Crop injury
herbicide volatility
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