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1 August 2015 Distribution of Arable Weed Populations along Eastern Arkansas–Mississippi Delta Roadsides: Factors Affecting Weed Occurrence
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Abstract

The occurrence of 36 arable weed species across 13 counties in the eastern Arkansas–Mississippi Delta area on 489 randomly selected road sites was surveyed in 2012. Palmer amaranth, johnsongrass, large crabgrass, barnyardgrass, prickly sida, and broadleaf signalgrass were the top six weed species, with occurrence noted at 313, 294, 261, 238, 176, and 136 sites, respectively. Factors found to affect weed occurrence along Mississippi Delta roadsides included topographical characteristics, weed species, ditch slope, road type, and nearby land use. Among roadside topographical characteristics, road shoulder was found to strongly affect weed occurrence. In addition, paved and gravel road types with moderate roadside slope explained most of the variability of weed occurrence at each sampling site. Additionally, nearby arable land use affected weed occurrence more so than natural, residential, and pastoral land. Barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, and Palmer amaranth were 3.6 to 4.3 times more likely to occur than all other species identified. An effective weed management plan along eastern Arkansas–Mississippi Delta roadsides should focus on road shoulder, adjacent arable land use, road type, and specific weed species (e.g., Palmer amaranth, johnsongrass, and barnyardgrass). The inclusion of these parameters in future weed control programs can prove invaluable for preventing the spread of the herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth, barnyardgrass, and johnsongrass.

Nomenclature: Barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.; broadleaf signalgrass, Urochloa platyphylla (Nash) R.D. Webster; johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; prickly sida, Sida spinosa L.

En 2012, se realizó un estudio observacional a lo largo de 13 condados en el este del área del Delta Arkansas-Mississippi en 489 sitios de carreteras, seleccionados aleatoriamente para evaluar la distribución de las malezas más comúnmente encontradas en áreas agrícolas arables. Entre las 36 especies detectadas, Amaranthus palmeri, Sorghum halepense, Digitaria sanguinalis, Sida spinosa, y Urochloa platyphylla fueron las seis especies de malezas más frecuentes encontrándose en 313, 294, 261, 238, 176, y 136 sitios, respectivamente. Echinochloa crus-galli, S. halepense, y A. Palmeri estuvieron presentes en 34, 32, y 31% de todas las condiciones de muestreo (sitio por característica topográfica de la carretera). Las preferencias de hábitat variaron entre las especies de malezas. A. palmeri, D. sanguinalis, y S. halepense exhibieron una preferencia por hábitats perturbados y los bordes de los campos. En cambio, E. crus-galli, Cyperus esculentus, Sesbania herbacea, y Ambrosia trifida exhibieron una preferencia por ambientes húmedos similares a los encontrados en los drenajes de las carreteras. El uso de herbicidas en los bordes de carreteras se encuentra bajo muchas regulaciones ambientales y preocupaciones del público que, en combinación con la evolución de resistencia a herbicidas, necesita un plan efectivo para el manejo de especies agronómicamente importantes en los bordes de carreteras en e

Nicholas E. Korres, Jason K. Norsworthy, Muthukumar V. Bagavathiannan, and Andy Mauromoustakos "Distribution of Arable Weed Populations along Eastern Arkansas–Mississippi Delta Roadsides: Factors Affecting Weed Occurrence," Weed Technology 29(3), 596-604, (1 August 2015). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-14-00152.1
Received: 15 December 2014; Accepted: 1 February 2015; Published: 1 August 2015
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